This workbook started as an online word-by-word translation exercise on our otherwise disused Pali forum (http://pali.sirimangalo.org/forum). As other duties encroached, the exercise was discontinued. Then, this year I was asked to teach Pali by several members of our community. In the beginning, after our grammar lessons, I would use random texts from the Tipitaka to point out examples of what we had studied, as a means of providing some level of guided immersion as quickly as possible. At one point in a course this August, I remembered the work done for our forum and printed up the first part of it in much the form that it is found in the workbook, giving it to my guinea pig student together with a dictionary and what basic grammar we had studied to date, and had him work on it by himself. The results were impressive, whether from his own aptitude or the nature of the exercise I can't say yet, but it was enough to make me continue translating and giving him the text as homework until he left. Thinking it might be of benefit on a wider scale, I have completed the workbook and present it here.
The Cakkhupālattheravatthu is the commentary to the first verse of the Dhammapada. It comprises one of the many little-known stories of the Pali literature, mostly found in the Dhammapada and Jātaka commentaries. The Dhammapada stories are what are used in Thailand as the standard text of study for new Pali students, since the language is simpler and more grammatically proper overall than the Canonical texts, and the stories are entertaining even when the work of translating them is not.
The workbook is split into sixteen parts or lessons, each of which is further divided into three sections – the Pali and a translation on one page and a word-by-word literal translation on the next. The idea behind this format, worked out by my student and myself, was that he should use the first two sections of each part of the workbook to come up with the third, hence its being on a separate page. This idea is in line with how Pali used to be taught in Thailand, where students would be given one book with the Pali and another with the translation, and would have to come up with the word-by-word translation themselves. Here it is given as a reference, but the idea is to attempt to use the proper translation as a guide to translating the Pali word-by-word yourself, using only a simple Pali-English dictionary. For the purpose, I would recommend the excellent CPED by Buddhadatta Thera, available on-line or probably by order. You could also use the Digital Pali Reader or the Android Tipitaka apps which both have Pali-English dictionaries and are available for download at http://pali.sirimangalo.org/
As with all of my work, if you are using this for the non-commercial promotion of the Buddha's teaching, you have my blessing to use, modify, or do whatever you like with it. If you are using it for some other work, you don't necessarily have my blessing but do still have permission to use it as you like – I would never sue anyone for their use of something I have given them.
October 31st, 2012
1. “manopubbaṅgamā dhammā, manoseṭṭhā manomayā.
manasā ce paduṭṭhena, bhāsati vā karoti vā.
tato naṃ dukkhamanveti, cakkaṃva vahato padan”ti. --
ayaṃ dhammadesanā kattha bhāsitāti? sāvatthiyaṃ. kaṃ ārabbhāti? cakkhupālattheraṃ.
sāvatthiyaṁ kira mahāsuvaṇṇo nāma kuṭumbiko ahosi aḍḍho mahaddhano mahābhogo aputtako. so ekadivasaṁ nhānatitthaṁ nhatvā natvā āgacchanto antarāmagge sampannapattasākhaṁ ekaṁ vanappatiṁ disvā “ayaṁ mahesakkhāya devatāya pariggahito bhavissatī”ti tassa heṭṭhābhāgaṁ sodhāpetvā pākāraparikkhepaṁ kārāpetvā vālukaṁ okirāpetvā dhajapaṭākaṁ ussāpetvā vanappatiṁ alaṅkaritvā añjaliṁ karitvā “sace puttaṁ vā dhītaraṁ vā labheyyaṁ, tumhākaṁ mahāsakkāraṁ karissāmī”ti patthanaṁ katvā pakkāmi.
athassa na cirasseva bhariyāya kucchiyaṃ gabbho patiṭṭhāsi. sā gabbhassa patiṭṭhitabhāvaṃ ñatvā tassa ārocesi. so tassā gabbhassa parihāramadāsi. sā dasamāsaccayena puttaṃ vijāyi. taṃ nāmaggahaṇadivase seṭṭhi attanā pālitaṃ vanappatiṃ nissāya laddhattā tassa pāloti nāmaṃ akāsi. sā aparabhāge aññampi puttaṃ labhi. tassa cūḷapāloti nāmaṃ katvā itarassa mahāpāloti nāmaṃ akāsi. te vayappatte gharabandhanena bandhiṃsu. aparabhāge mātāpitaro kālamakaṃsu. sabbampi vibhavaṃ itareyeva vicāriṃsu.
tasmiṃ samaye satthā pavattitavaradhammacakko anupubbenāgantvā anāthapiṇḍikena mahāseṭṭhinā catupaṇṇāsakoṭidhanaṃ vissajjetvā kārite jetavanamahāvihāre viharati mahājanaṃ saggamagge ca mokkhamagge ca patiṭṭhāpayamāno.
1. Dhammas have mind as forerunner, have mind as chief, are formed of mind.
If, with a mind corrupted, one speaks or acts,
because of that, suffering follows one,
just as a wheel the foot of the ox pulling the cart.
Where was this dhamma teaching spoken? In Sāvatthi. On what subject? The Elder Cakkhupāla.
In Sāvatthi, it is said, there was a land-owner named Greatgold, rich, of great wealth, of great property, but without a son. One day, as he was returning after bathing and performing ablutions at the bathing ford, he saw along the way a majestic tree, endowed with a full array of leaves and branches. Thinking to himself, "this tree will certainly have been taken possession of by an angel of great power," he ordered the cleaning of the area below, the making of a surrounding wall, the spreading of sand, and the raising of his banner and flag. Then, adorning that majestic tree with ornaments, he raised his hands in reverence and made a vow thus: "If I should gain either a son or a daughter, I will perform great honour unto you!" and went away.
Then, in no long time, an embryo became established in his wife's womb. When she learned of her pregnancy, she told him and he gave complete care for her embryo. After ten months, she gave birth to a son. On his naming day, the rich man, as he had obtained the son due to the majestic tree he himself had protected, gave him the name Pāla or "Protector". Then, after some time, she had another son. They gave him the name Cūḷapāla or "Little Protector", and gave the other the name Mahāpāla or "Big Protector". On coming of age, they two became bound by the bonds of the household. After some further time, their mother and father made an end to their time on Earth, and all of their affluence went to them.
At that time, the teacher had turned the holy wheel of dhamma and, after travelling in stages, was dwelling in the great monastery of Jeta's grove, made by Anathapindika the great rich man giving up 540 million of his wealth, and was setting a great multitude on the path to heaven and on the path to freedom.
ti Question: ayaṃ “This dhammadesanā exposition of dhamma bhāsitā was spoken kattha in what place?” Sāvatthiyaṃ “In Sāvatthi.” ti Question: ārabbhā having referred kaṃ to what?” cakkhupālattheraṃ “The Elder Cakkhupāla.”
dhammā Realities manopubbaṅgamā have mind as forerunner, manoseṭṭhā have mind as chief, manomayā are formed of mind. ce If, manasā with a mind paduṭṭhena corrupted, bhāsati [one] speaks vā or karoti acts, tato Because of that, dukkhaṃ anveti suffering goes after naṃ him, va just as cakkaṃ a wheel padaṃ the foot vahato of the one pulling the burden.
sāvatthiyaṁ in Savatthi kira it is said ahosi there was kuṭumbiko a land-owner mahāsuvaṇṇo nāma named Greatgold aḍḍho rich mahaddhano of great wealth mahābhogo of great property aputtako without a son. ekadivasaṁ one day so he nhānatitthaṁ nhatvā having bathed at the bathing ford natvā having performed ablutions āgacchanto coming disvā having seen sampannapattasākhaṁ ekaṁ vanappatiṁ one majestic tree fully-endowed with leaves and branches antarāmagge along the way iti [thought] thus “ayaṁ this bhavissati will be pariggahito [a tree] that has been taken possession of mahesakkhāya devatāya by an angel of great power sodhāpetvā having ordered the cleaning of heṭṭhābhāgaṁ the area below tassa that tree kārāpetvā having ordered the making of pākāraparikkhepaṁ a surrounding wall okirāpetvā having ordered the spreading of vālukaṁ sand ussāpetvā having ordered the raising of dhajapaṭākaṁ banner and flag alaṅkaritvā having decorated vanappatiṁ the majestic tree karitvā having made añjaliṁ a gesture of reverence katvā having made patthanaṁ a vow iti thus “sace if labheyyaṁ I may gain vā either puttaṁ a son vā or dhītaraṁ a daughter , karissāmi I will perform mahāsakkāraṁ great honour tumhākaṁ unto you pakkāmi. went away
atha then na cirasseva in no long time gabbho an embryo patiṭṭhāsi became established kucchiyaṃ in the womb bhariyāya of the wife assa of him. sā She ñatvā having learned patiṭṭhitabhāvaṃ of the state of establishment gabbhassa of the embryo ārocesi told [it] tassa to him. so He adāsi gave parihāra.m complete care gabbhassa to the embryo tassā of her. sā She vijāyi gave birth to puttaṃ a son dasamāsaccayena at the end of ten months. nāmaggahaṇadivase On the day of taking a name taṃ for him seṭṭhi the rich man, laddhattā himself one who obtained [the son] nissāya because of vanappatiṃ the majestic tree pālitaṃ protected attanā by himself akāsi made nāmaṃ the name tassa of him iti thus pālo Protector api and aparabhāge at a later time sā she labhi had aññam another puttaṃ son. katvā Having made nāmaṃ the name tassa of him iti thus: cūḷapālo “Little Protector” akāsi [the rich man] made nāmaṃ the name itarassa of the other iti thus: mahāpālo “Great Protector”. vayappatte Upon coming of age, te they bandhiṃsu became bound gharabandhanena by the bonds of the household. aparabhāge At a later time mātāpitaro [their] mother and father kālamakaṃsu made [an end to their] time. api So, sabbam all vibhavaṃ their affluence eva indeed vicāriṃsu was distributed to itare the others.
tasmiṃ samaye at that time satthā the teacher pavattitavaradhammacakko with the holy Wheel of Dhamma turned āgantvā having come anupubbena by one [journey] after another viharati was dwelling jetavanamahāvihāre in the great dwelling of Jeta's grove kārite made anāthapiṇḍikena by Anāthapiṇḍika mahāseṭṭhinā the great millionaire vissajjetvā having given up catupaṇṇāsakoṭidhanaṃ 540 million of [his] wealth, mahājanaṃ patiṭṭhāpayamāno was causing a great multitude to become established saggamagge ca in the path to heaven, and mokkhamagge ca also the path to freedom.
tathāgato hi mātipakkhato asītiyā, pitipakkhato asītiyāti dveasītiñātikulasahassehi kārite nigrodhamahāvihāre ekameva vassāvāsaṃ vasi, anāthapiṇḍikena kārite jetavanamahāvihāre ekūnavīsativassāni, visākhāya sattavīsatikoṭidhanapariccāgena kārite pubbārāme chabbassānīti dvinnaṃ kulānaṃ guṇamahattataṃ paṭicca sāvatthiṃ nissāya pañcavīsativassāni vassāvāsaṃ vasi. anāthapiṇḍikopi visākhāpi mahāupāsikā nibaddhaṃ divasassa dve vāre tathāgatassa upaṭṭhānaṃ gacchanti, gacchantā ca “daharasāmaṇerā no hatthe olokessantī”ti tucchahatthā na gatapubbā. purebhattaṃ gacchantā khādanīyabhojanīyādīni gahetvāva gacchanti, pacchābhattaṃ gacchantā pañca bhesajjāni aṭṭha ca pānāni. nivesanesu pana tesaṃ dvinnaṃ dvinnaṃ bhikkhusahassānaṃ niccaṃ paññattāsanāneva honti. annapānabhesajjesu yo yaṃ icchati, tassa taṃ yathicchitameva sampajjati. tesu anāthapiṇḍikena ekadivasampi satthā pañhaṃ na pucchitapubbo. so kira “tathāgato buddhasukhumālo khattiyasukhumālo, ‘bahūpakāro me, gahapatī’ti mayhaṃ dhammaṃ desento kilameyyā”ti satthari adhimattasinehena pañhaṃ na pucchati. satthā pana tasmiṃ nisinnamatteyeva “ayaṃ seṭṭhi maṃ arakkhitabbaṭṭhāne rakkhati. ahañhi kappasatasahassādhikāni cattāri asaṅkhyeyyāni alaṅkatapaṭiyattaṃ attano sīsaṃ chinditvā akkhīni uppāṭetvā hadayamaṃsaṃ uppāṭetvā pāṇasamaṃ puttadāraṃ pariccajitvā pāramiyo pūrento paresaṃ dhammadesanatthameva pūresiṃ. esa maṃ arakkhitabbaṭṭhāne rakkhatī”ti ekaṃ dhammadesanaṃ kathetiyeva.
The Tathagata's residence was as follows: whereas he only spent one rains-residence in the great monastery of Nigrodha made by the twice-eighty-thousand families of his relatives (eighty from his maternal side and eighty from his paternal side), he spent nineteen rains in the great monastery in Jeta's Grove made by Anathapindaka and six rains in Forepark monastery made by Visakha giving up twenty-seven million of her wealth. He thus kept the rains-residence for twenty-five rains with Sāvatthi as his support, due to the greatness of virtue of these two families.
Both Anathapindika and Visakha the great lay disciple were bound to go to attend upon of the Tathagata twice a day. And they, when going, never went empty-handed, for they thought, "the young novices will look upon our empty hands." When going before mealtime, they went taking hard and soft foods; and when going after mealtime, the five medicines and the eight juice drinks. Further, in their homes, meals were daily appointed for two thousand bhikkhus each where, in regards to food, drink, and medicines, whatever was wanted was fulfilled just as desired.
Of the two, Anathapindika had never asked a question of the teacher on a single day. It is said that he didn't ask any questions due to his excessive love for the teacher, thinking, "the Tathagata is a delicate Buddha, a delicate noble; when teaching the dhamma to me with the thought, 'of much support to me is this householder,' he would become wearied."
The teacher, however, while the other was just sitting there, thought, "this rich man protects me in a way that it is not proper to be protected. For I - when striving to fulfil the perfections over four uncountable eras and one-hundred-thousand eons wherein I had my own adorned and ornamented head cut off, had my eyes pulled out, had the flesh of my heart torn asunder, and gave away my wife and children who were as dear as life itself - brought them to fulfilment for the purpose of teaching the dhamma to others. This man protects me in a way that is not proper to be protected," and so gave a teaching on the dhamma.
hi Whereas tathāgato the Tathāgata vasi resided ekameva just one vassāvāsaṃ rains-residence nigrodhamahāvihāre in the great Nigrodha Monastery kārite made dveasītiñātikulasahassehi by his twice-eighty thousands of related families, iti thus: mātipakkhato asītiyā eighty from the maternal side, pitipakkhato asītiyā eighty from the paternal side, vasi he resided vassāvāsaṃ for the rains-residence pañcavīsativassāni twenty-five rains nissāya supported by sāvatthiṃ Savatthi paṭicca due to guṇamahattataṃ the fact of greatness of virtue dvinnaṃ of two kulānaṃ families iti as follows: ekūnavīsativassāni nineteen rains jetavanamahāvihāre in the great monastery in Jeta's Grove kārite made anāthapiṇḍikena by Anathapindaka chabbassāni six rains pubbārāme in Forepark monastery kārite made visākhāya by Visākhā sattavīsatikoṭidhanapariccāgena with the relinquishing of twenty-seven million of [her] wealth.
anāthapiṇḍikopi Both Anāthapiṇḍika visākhāpi and Visākhā mahāupāsikā the great lay disciple nibaddhaṃ were bound gacchanti to go for upaṭṭhānaṃ the attending upon tathāgatassa of the Tathāgata dve on two vāre occasions divasassa per day. ca and gacchantā [they], when going na gatapubbā had never gone tucchahatthā empty-handed, iti [thinking] thus: “daharasāmaṇerā the young novices olokessanti will examine no our hatthe hands. gacchantā When going purebhattaṃ before the meal, gacchanti went gahetvāva having taken khādanīyabhojanīyādīni hard and soft foods; gacchantā when going pacchābhattaṃ after the meal, pañca the five bhesajjāni medicines ca and aṭṭha the eight pānāni drinks. pana further, nivesanesu in their homes honti there were niccaṃ always tesaṃ their paññattāsanāneva appointed meals dvinnaṃ dvinnaṃ for each two bhikkhusahassānaṃ thousand bhikkhus. annapānabhesajjesu in regards to food, drink and medicines, yo who icchati wanted yaṃ what, taṃ that sampajjati was fulfilled tassa for him yathicchitameva just as desired.
tesu Of them, anāthapiṇḍikena by Anāthapiṇḍika, satthā the teacher na pucchitapubbo had never been asked pañhaṃ a question ekadivasampi on even a single day. kira it is said that so he, adhimattasinehena with excessive love satthari for the teacher, iti [thinking] thus: “tathāgato the Tathāgata buddhasukhumālo is a delicate Buddha khattiyasukhumālo, a delicate noble; desento when teaching dhammaṃ the dhamma mayhaṃ to me iti [thinking] thus: bahūpakāro 'of much support me to me gahapati is this householder,' kilameyya would become wearied," na pucchati didn't ask pañhaṃ a question.
satthā The teacher, pana however, tasmiṃ while that one nisinnamatteyeva was just sitting there, iti [thought] thus: “ayaṃ this seṭṭhi rich man rakkhati protects maṃ me arakkhitabbaṭṭhāne in a way that it is not proper to be protected. ahañhi For I pūrento when bringing to fulfilment pāramiyo the perfections cattāri over four asaṅkhyeyyāni uncountable eras kappasatasahassādhikāni plus one-hundred-thousand eons sīsaṃ having had my head, alaṅkatapaṭiyattaṃ which was decorated and prepared attano by myself, chinditvā cut off akkhīni uppāṭetvā having had my eyes pulled out hadayamaṃsaṃ uppāṭetvā having had the flesh of my heart pulled out pariccajitvā and having given away puttadāraṃ my wife and children, pāṇasamaṃ as dear as life itself, pūresiṃ brought them to perfection dhammadesanatthameva for the purpose of teaching the dhamma paresaṃ to others. esa This man rakkhati protects maṃ me arakkhitabbaṭṭhāne in a way that is not proper to be protected," kathetiyeva gave ekaṃ dhammadesanaṃ a teaching on the dhamma.
tadā sāvatthiyaṃ satta manussakoṭiyo vasanti. tesu satthu dhammakathaṃ sutvā pañcakoṭimattā manussā ariyasāvakā jātā, dvekoṭimattā manussā puthujjanā. tesu ariyasāvakānaṃ dveyeva kiccāni ahesuṃ — purebhattaṃ dānaṃ denti, pacchābhattaṃ gandhamālādihatthā vatthabhesajjapānakādīni gāhāpetvā dhammassavanatthāya gacchanti. athekadivasaṃ mahāpālo ariyasāvake gandhamālādihatthe vihāraṃ gacchante disvā “ayaṃ mahājano kuhiṃ gacchatī”ti pucchitvā “dhammassavanāyā”ti sutvā “ahampi gamissāmī”ti gantvā satthāraṃ vanditvā parisapariyante nisīdi.
buddhā ca nāma dhammaṃ desentā saraṇasīlapabbajjādīnaṃ upanissayaṃ oloketvā ajjhāsayavasena dhammaṃ desenti, tasmā taṃ divasaṃ satthā tassa upanissayaṃ oloketvā dhammaṃ desento anupubbikathaṃ kathesi. seyyathidaṃ — dānakathaṃ, sīlakathaṃ, saggakathaṃ, kāmānaṃ ādīnavaṃ, okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ, nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ pakāsesi.
taṃ sutvā mahāpālo kuṭumbiko cintesi — “paralokaṃ gacchantaṃ puttadhītaro vā bhātaro vā bhogā vā nānugacchanti, sarīrampi attanā saddhiṃ na gacchati, kiṃ me gharāvāsena pabbajissāmī”ti. so desanāpariyosāne satthāraṃ upasaṅkamitvā pabbajjaṃ yāci. atha naṃ satthā — “atthi te koci āpucchitabbayuttako ñātī”ti āha. “kaniṭṭhabhātā me atthi, bhante”ti. “tena hi taṃ āpucchāhī”ti.
In Sāvatthi, just then, were dwelling seven koti of people. Of them, a total of five koti of people, having heard talk on the dhamma from the teacher, had become noble disciples. A total of two koti humans were still fully-defiled.
Of them, two tasks were undertaken only by the noble disciples:
1) before the meal they would give alms;
2) after the meal, with hands full of scents, garlands, etc. having ordered the bringing of cloth, medicines, drinks, etc. they would go for the purpose of listening to the dhamma.
Then, one day, Mahāpāla, having seen the noble disciples with hands full of scents, garlands, etc. going to the monastery, asked, "to where is this great crowd going?" On hearing, "for listening to the dhamma", he thought, "I, too, will go." Going and paying homage to the teacher, he sat at the perimeter of the gathering.
Indeed, awakened ones, when teaching the dhamma, do so according to disposition, after examining the audience's past supportive conditions such as taking refuge, keeping precepts, going forth, etc. Thus, on that day, the teacher, discerning his (Mahāpāla's) past supportive conditions, taught an exposition on gradual development; that is: an exposition on charity, an exposition on morality, an exposition on heaven, the disadvantages, the baseness, and the defilement of sensuality, and the benefits of renunciation.
Having heard this, the landowner Mahāpāla thought, "neither sons and daughters, nor wives, nor possessions follow after one going to the next world. Even the physical body does not go along with one. What is to be gained by my dwelling as a householder? I will go forth."
At the end of the teaching, he approached the teacher and requested the going forth. At this, the teacher asked, "is there any relative of yours of whom it would be proper to ask permission?" "There is my younger brother venerable sir." "In that case, ask permission of him."
sāvatthiyaṃ in Savatthi tadā then vasanti. were dwelling satta seven manussakoṭiyo koti of humans tesu of them pañcakoṭimattā a total of five koti manussā humans sutvā having heard dhammakathaṃ a dhamma talk satthu of the teacher jātā, had become ariyasāvakā noble disciples dvekoṭimattā a total of two koti manussā humans puthujjanā. [were] defiled beings.
tesu of them, ahesuṃ there were dveyeva just two kiccāni duties ariyasāvakānaṃ of the noble disciples purebhattaṃ before the meal denti, they give dānaṃ charity pacchābhattaṃ after the meal gandhamālādihatthā with hands full of scents, garlands, etc. gāhāpetvā having ordered the bringing of vatthabhesajjapānakādīni cloth, medicines, drinks, etc. gacchanti. would go dhammassavanatthāya for the purpose of listening to the dhamma. athekadivasaṃ then, one day, mahāpālo Mahapaala disvā having seen ariyasāvake the noble disciples gandhamālādihatthe with hands full of scents, garlands, etc. gacchante going to vihāraṃ the monastery pucchitvā having asked, iti thus: kuhiṃ "to where ayaṃ [is] this mahājano great crowd gacchati going?" sutvā having heard, iti thus: “dhammassavanāya” "for listening to the dhamma" iti [thought] thus: “ahampi "I, too, gamissāmi” will go." gantvā having gone, vanditvā having paid homage satthāraṃ to the teacher, nisīdi. sat parisapariyante at the perimeter of the assembly.
ca and buddhā awakened ones nāma indeed desentā when teaching dhammaṃ the dhamma desenti teach dhammaṃ the dhamma ajjhāsayavasena according to disposition oloketvā having discerned upanissayaṃ the supporting conditions saraṇasīlapabbajjādīnaṃ such as taking refuge, keeping precepts, going forth, etc. tasmā thus, taṃ on that divasaṃ day satthā the teacher oloketvā having discerned tassa his upanissayaṃ supporting conditions, desento when teaching dhammaṃ the dhamma kathesi. expounded anupubbikathaṃ the exposition on gradual development, seyyathidaṃ that is to say pakāsesi he made known dānakathaṃ, the exposition of charity, sīlakathaṃ, the exposition of morality, saggakathaṃ, the exposition on heaven, ādīnavaṃ, the disadvantages okāraṃ the baseness, saṃkilesaṃ, and the defilement kāmānaṃ of sensuality, ānisaṃsaṃ and the benefit nekkhamme in regards to renunciation
sutvā having heard taṃ that, kuṭumbiko the landowner mahāpālo Mahāpāla cintesi thought iti thus: na neither puttadhītaro sons and daughters vā nor bhātaro wives vā nor bhogā possessions vā anugacchanti follow after gacchantaṃ the one going “paralokaṃ to the next world. pi even sarīram the physical body na does not gacchati go saddhiṃ together attanā with oneself. kiṃ what [is to be gained] me by me gharāvāsena dwelling as a householder? pabbajissāmi I will go forth. desanāpariyosāne at the end of the teaching, so he upasaṅkamitvā having approached satthāraṃ the teacher yāci requested pabbajjaṃ the going forth. atha At naṃ that, satthā the teacher āha spoke iti thus: “atthi is there koci any ñāti relative te of yours āpucchitabbayuttako who it would be proper to ask permission? atthi There is me my “kaniṭṭhabhātā younger brother bhante venerable sir. “tena hi in that case āpucchāhi ask permission of taṃ him.
so “sādhū”ti sampaṭicchitvā satthāraṃ vanditvā gehaṃ gantvā kaniṭṭhaṃ pakkosāpetvā — “tāta, yaṃ mayhaṃ imasmiṃ gehe saviññāṇakampi aviññāṇakampi dhanaṃ kiñci atthi, sabbaṃ taṃ tava bhāro, paṭipajjāhi nan”ti. “tumhe pana kiṃ karissathā”ti āha. “ahaṃ satthu santike pabbajissāmī”ti. “kiṃ kathesi bhātika, tvaṃ me mātari matāya mātā viya, pitari mate pitā viya laddho, gehe te mahāvibhavo, sakkā gehaṃ ajjhāvasanteheva puññāni kātuṃ, mā evaṃ karitthā”ti. “tāta, ahaṃ satthu dhammadesanaṃ sutvā gharāvāse vasituṃ na sakkomi. satthārā hi atisaṇhasukhumaṃ tilakkhaṇaṃ āropetvā ādimajjhapariyosānakalyāṇo dhammo desito, na sakkā so agāramajjhe vasantena pūretuṃ, pabbajissāmi, tātā”ti. “bhātika, taruṇāyeva tāvattha, mahallakakāle pabbajissathā”ti. “tāta, mahallakassa hi attano hatthapādāpi anassavā honti, na attano vase vattanti, kimaṅgaṃ pana ñātakā, svāhaṃ tava kathaṃ na karomi, samaṇapaṭipattiṃyeva pūressāmi”.
“jarājajjaritā honti, hatthapādā anassavā. yassa so vihatatthāmo, kathaṃ dhammaṃ carissati”.
tassa viravantasseva satthu santikaṃ gantvā pabbajjaṃ yācitvā laddhapabbajjūpasampado ācariyupajjhāyānaṃ santike pañca vassāni vasitvā vuṭṭhavasso pavāretvā satthāramupasaṅkamitvā vanditvā pucchi —
“bhante, imasmiṃ sāsane kati dhurānī”ti? “ganthadhuraṃ, vipassanādhuranti dveyeva dhurāni bhikkhū”ti.
He, assented, "very well," and, paying respect to the teacher, went to his home and had his younger brother called. "My dear, whatever of mine there is in this house, either animate or inanimate wealth, all of that is now your burden. Please live your life off of it."
"But what will you do?" his brother asked.
"I will go forth in the teacher's presence."
"What are you saying brother? I have had only you as a mother since mother died; as a father since father died! You have great affluence in the house. It is possible for one dwelling in the household to perform good deeds; don't do this, my dear!"
"I have heard the teacher's exposition on the dhamma and am not able to dwell as a householder. Dhamma that is beautiful in the beginning, middle and end, leading to the realization of the three characteristics which are exceedingly subtle and refined, has been taught by the teacher. One is not able to bring it to fulfillment while dwelling in the midst of the household. I will go forth, my dear."
"Brother, you are still too young! Go forth when you are old!"
"My dear, for an old person even their very own hands and feet disobey them; they go not according to one's power; so, to what degree one's relatives? Shush. I will not speak further; I am going to bring to fulfillment the practice of a recluse."
weak the old are, hands and feet disobedient
he whose welfare has been destroyed, how shall he practice the dhamma?
"Truly, my dear, I will go forth."
While his brother was still crying, he returned to the presence of the teacher and requested the going forth. Receiving both going forth and ordination, and after dwelling five rains in the presence of his teacher and preceptor, with the exiting the rains and giving permission (for the sangha to point out his faults), he approached the teacher. Having paid respect, he asked, "Venerable sir, in this dispensation, how many duties are there?"
"There are just these two duties, o monk: the duty of study and the duty of insight."
Word by word:
so he, sampaṭicchitvā having assented iti thus: “sādhu "very well" vanditvā having paid respect satthāraṃ to the teacher gantvā having gone gehaṃ to his home pakkosāpetvā having ordered the calling of kaniṭṭhaṃ his younger brother, iti [spoke] thus: “tāta dear, yaṃ what kiñci ever mayhaṃ of mine atthi there is imasmiṃ in this gehe house saviññāṇakampi either animate aviññāṇakampi or inanimate dhanaṃ wealth sabbaṃ all of taṃ that tava [is] your bhāro burden paṭipajjāhi please live your life off of nan that. pana but kiṃ what “tumhe karissatha will you do?** āha he replied “ahaṃ I pabbajissāmi will go forth satthu in the teacher's santike presence. “kiṃ what kathesi are you saying bhātika brother? tvaṃ you [are] laddho obtained viya as mātā a mother me to me mātari since mother matāya has died viya as pitā a father pitari since father mate has died. mahāvibhavo [there is] great affluence gehe in the house te for you. sakkā it is possible kātuṃ to perform puññāni good deeds eva even ajjhāvasantehi by those dwelling gehaṃ in the household. mā don't karittha do evaṃ this “tāta, dear, ahaṃ I sutvā having heard satthu the teacher's dhammadesanaṃ teaching on the dhamma na sakkomi am not able vasituṃ to dwell gharāvāse in the dwelling of a householder. hi for satthārā by the teacher dhammo dhamma ādimajjhapariyosānakalyāṇo that is beautiful in the beginning, middle and end, āropetvā leading to the realization of tilakkhaṇaṃ the three characteristics atisaṇhasukhumaṃ which are exceedingly subtle and refined, desito has been taught. so he na is not sakkā able pūretuṃ, to bring to [it] to completion vasantena by dwelling agāramajjhe in the midst of the household. pabbajissāmi, I will go forth, tāta my dear. “bhātika, brother attha you are tāva still eva too taruṇā young. pabbajissatha go forth mahallakakāle in the time when you are old. “tāta, my dear mahallakassa for an old person hi even attano their own hatthapādāpi very hands and feet honti are anassavā disobedient na they do not vattanti, go vase according to the power attano of oneself. pana so kimaṅgaṃ to what degree ñātakā one's relatives? su Shush. ahaṃ I na will not karomi, make tava further kathaṃ conversation; pūressāmi I am going to bring to fulfillment samaṇapaṭipattiṃyeva that very practice of a recluse.
jarājajjaritā weak the old honti are hatthapādā their hands and feet anassavā disobedient
so he yassa whose vihatatthāmo welfare has been destroyed kathaṃ how carissati shall he practice dhammaṃ the dhamma?
pabbajissāmevāhaṃ, "indeed, I will go forth, tātāti dear."
tassa while he viravantasseva was still crying gantvā having gone santikaṃ to the presence satthu of the teacher yācitvā having requested pabbajjaṃ the going forth laddhapabbajjūpasampado as one who received the going forth and ordination, vasitvā having dwelt pañca five vassāni rains santike in the presence ācariyupajjhāyānaṃ of his teacher and preceptor, vuṭṭhavasso with the exiting the rains pavāretvā having given permission [for the sangha to point out his faults] satthāramupasaṅkamitvā having approached the teacher vanditvā having paid respect, pucchi asked iti thus:
“bhante, venerable sir, imasmiṃ in this sāsane dispensation, kati how many dhurānī? duties santi are there?
“ganthadhuraṃ the duty of study ca and vipassanādhuraṃ the duty of insight. iti thus santi there are dveyeva just two dhurāni duties, bhikkhū monk.
“katamaṃ pana, bhante, ganthadhuraṃ, katamaṃ vipassanādhuran”ti?
“attano paññānurūpena ekaṃ vā dve vā nikāye sakalaṃ vā pana tepiṭakaṃ buddhavacanaṃ uggaṇhitvā tassa dhāraṇaṃ, kathanaṃ, vācananti idaṃ ganthadhuraṃ nāma, sallahukavuttino pana pantasenāsanābhiratassa attabhāve khayavayaṃ paṭṭhapetvā sātaccakiriyavasena vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhetvā arahattaggahaṇanti idaṃ vipassanādhuraṃ nāmā”ti.
“bhante, ahaṃ mahallakakāle pabbajito ganthadhuraṃ pūretuṃ na sakkhissāmi, vipassanādhuraṃ pana pūressāmi, kammaṭṭhānaṃ me kathethā”ti.
athassa satthā yāva arahattaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathesi.
so satthāraṃ vanditvā attanā sahagāmino bhikkhū pariyesanto saṭṭhi bhikkhū labhitvā tehi saddhiṃ nikkhamitvā vīsayojanasatamaggaṃ gantvā ekaṃ mahantaṃ paccantagāmaṃ patvā tattha saparivāro piṇḍāya pāvisi. manussā vattasampanne bhikkhū disvāva pasannacittā āsanāni paññāpetvā nisīdāpetvā paṇītenāhārena parivisitvā, “bhante, kuhiṃ ayyā gacchantī”ti pucchitvā “yathāphāsukaṭṭhānaṃ upāsakā”ti vutte paṇḍitā manussā “vassāvāsaṃ senāsanaṃ pariyesanti bhadantā”ti ñatvā, “bhante, sace ayyā imaṃ temāsaṃ idha vaseyyuṃ, mayaṃ saraṇesu patiṭṭhāya sīlāni gaṇheyyāmā”ti āhaṃsu. tepi “mayaṃ imāni kulāni nissāya bhavanissaraṇaṃ karissāmā”ti adhivāsesuṃ.
"What then, venerable sir, is the duty of study, and what the duty of insight?
"Having learned one or two sections or even the whole three baskets comprising the Buddha's word, as accords with one's wisdom; the carrying on, the discussing, the speaking on what has been learned; this is called the duty of study. The gaining of arahantship by bringing insight to maturity through the power of constant application by one with light duties delighting in a secluded abode who has firmly established [in the mind] the waste and decay of their being; this is called the duty of insight."
"Venerable sir, I have gone forth in my old age; I shall not be able to bring to fulfillment the duty of study. The duty of insight, however, I shall bring to fulfillment. Please teach me a meditation subject."
So, the teacher taught him a meditation subject leading to arahantship.
He paid respect to the teacher, then sought out and found sixty monks to go along with him. Going together, they travelled one-hundred-and-twenty yojanas and reached a great border-town, which he and his retinue entered together for alms. The people, impressed upon seeing the monks of perfect behaviour, set out seats, had the monks sit down, served them with food and drink and asked, "Venerable sir, where are the good sirs going?"
Upon their replying, "to a place that is comfortable, lay-followers", the wise people understood, "the venerable sirs are looking for a dwelling as a residence for the rains," and said, "Venerable sir, if the good sirs would stay here these three months, we would take the precepts and establish ourselves in the refuges. The monks acquiesced, thinking, "dependant on these families we will make an escape from becoming."
“katamaṃ what pana, then bhante, venerable sir ganthadhuraṃ, is the duty of study katamaṃ what vipassanādhuraṃ is the duty of insight?
uggaṇhitvā having learned ekaṃ one vā or dve two vā nikāye sections vā or pana even sakalaṃ the whole tepiṭakaṃ three baskets buddhavacanaṃ that are the Buddha's words, attano paññānurūpena according to one's wisdom, dhāraṇaṃ the carrying on, kathanaṃ the discussing, vācanaṃ the speaking tassa of that; idaṃ this nāma, is called ganthadhuraṃ the duty of study. pana Then, arahattaggahaṇan the gaining of arahantship vaḍḍhetvā having brought to maturity vipassanaṃ insight sātaccakiriyavasena through the power of constant application sallahukavuttino by one with light duties pantasenāsanābhiratassa delighting in a secluded abode paṭṭhapetvā having firmly established [in the mind] khayavayaṃ the waste and decay attabhāve in regards to one's being. idaṃ This nāma is called vipassanādhuraṃ the duty of insight.
“bhante, venerable sir, ahaṃ I pabbajito have gone forth mahallakakāle in the time of being old na sakkhissāmi, I shan't be able pūretuṃ to bring to fulfilment, ganthadhuraṃ the duty of study. vipassanādhuraṃ The duty of insight, pana however, pūressāmi, I shall bring to fulfilment. kathetha please expound kammaṭṭhānaṃ a meditation subject me to me.
atha So, yāva as far as arahattaṃ arahantship, satthā the teacher tāva so far kathesi expounded kammaṭṭhānaṃ a meditation subject assa to him .
so He vanditvā having paid respect satthāraṃ to the teacher, pariyesanto seeking out bhikkhū bhikkus sahagāmino [who would be] those who go along attanā with him, labhitvā having gained saṭṭhi sixty bhikkhū bhikkhus, nikkhamitvā having gone out saddhiṃ together tehi with them, gantvā having travelled vīsayojanasatamaggaṃ a path of one-hundred-and-twenty yojanas, patvā having reached ekaṃ one mahantaṃ great paccantagāmaṃ border-town pāvisi entered piṇḍāya for alms tattha therein saparivāro together with his retinue. manussā People, disvāva just having seen bhikkhū the bhikkhus vattasampanne of perfect behaviour pasannacittā [becoming] faithful-minded, paññāpetvā having set out āsanāni seats nisīdāpetvā having caused [the monks] to sit, parivisitvā having served [them] paṇītenāhārena with drink and food, pucchitvā having asked iti thus: “bhante, venerable sir kuhiṃ where ayyā are the sirs gacchanti going?
vutte when it was said iti thus: “yathāphāsukaṭṭhānaṃ "to a place that is comfortable upāsakā lay-followers", paṇḍitā wise manussā people ñatvā having understood iti thus: bhadantā "the venerable sirs pariyesanti are looking for senāsanaṃ a dwelling “vassāvāsaṃ as a residence for the rains" āhaṃsu spoke iti thus “bhante, venerable sir, sace if ayyā the good sirs vaseyyuṃ would stay idha here imaṃ these temāsaṃ three months, mayaṃ we patiṭṭhāya having established [ourselves] saraṇesu in the refuges gaṇheyyāma would take sīlāni the precepts. tepi So, they iti [having thought] thus: nissāya dependant on imāni these kulāni families mayaṃ we karissāma will make bhavanissaraṇaṃ an escape from becoming" adhivāsesuṃ acquiesced.
manussā tesaṃ paṭiññaṃ gahetvā vihāraṃ paṭijaggitvā rattiṭṭhānadivāṭṭhānāni sampādetvā adaṃsu. te nibaddhaṃ tameva gāmaṃ piṇḍāya pavisanti. atha ne eko vejjo upasaṅkamitvā, “bhante, bahūnaṃ vasanaṭṭhāne aphāsukampi nāma hoti, tasmiṃ uppanne mayhaṃ katheyyātha, bhesajjaṃ karissāmī”ti pavāresi. thero vassūpanāyikadivase te bhikkhū āmantetvā pucchi, “āvuso, imaṃ temāsaṃ katihi iriyāpathehi vītināmessathā”ti? “catūhi, bhante”ti. “kiṃ panetaṃ, āvuso, patirūpaṃ, nanu appamattehi bhavitabbaṃ”? “mayañhi dharamānakassa buddhassa santikā kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā āgatā, buddhā ca nāma na sakkā pamādena ārādhetuṃ, kalyāṇajjhāsayena te vo ārādhetabbā. pamattassa ca nāma cattāro apāyā sakagehasadisā, appamattā hothāvuso”ti. “kiṃ tumhe pana, bhante”ti? “ahaṃ tīhi iriyāpathehi vītināmessāmi, piṭṭhiṃ na pasāressāmi, āvuso”ti. “sādhu, bhante, appamattā hothā”ti.
atha therassa niddaṃ anokkamantassa paṭhamamāse atikkante majjhimamāse sampatte akkhirogo uppajji. chiddaghaṭato udakadhārā viya akkhīhi assudhārā paggharanti. so sabbarattiṃ samaṇadhammaṃ katvā aruṇuggamane gabbhaṃ pavisitvā nisīdi. bhikkhū bhikkhācāravelāya therassa santikaṃ gantvā, “bhikkhācāravelā, bhante”ti āhaṃsu. “tena hi, āvuso, gaṇhatha pattacīvaran”ti. attano pattacīvaraṃ gāhāpetvā nikkhami. bhikkhū tassa akkhīhi assūni paggharante disvā, “kimetaṃ, bhante”ti pucchiṃsu. “akkhīni me, āvuso, vātā vijjhantī”ti. “nanu, bhante, vejjena pavāritamhā, tassa kathemā”ti. “sādhāvuso”ti.
The people, having obtained their promise, tended to a dwelling for them, making dwelling places for night and day and offering them to the monks, and the monks went daily to that same village for alms. Then, one doctor approached them and invited them thus: "Venerable sir, with so many in one residence, some ailment will certainly arise. When it does, please tell me and I will make medicine for you."
The elder, on the day of entering the rains, called the monks and asked, "friends, in how many postures will you pass this three month period?"
"In four, venerable sir."
"What? But, friends, is this proper? Should you not live with vigilance? For we came here after obtaining a meditation subject in the presence of a living Buddha. And Buddhas are not to be pleased by those who are negligent; they can only be pleased with those who have beautiful disposition. Further, for one who is negligent the four states of loss lie in wait just like one's own home. May you all, friends, be vigilant."
"What about you, venerable sir?"
"I will pass the time in three postures; I will not stretch out my back, friends."
"Very good, venerable sir; may you be vigilant."
Then, after the elder had passed the first month without falling sleep, he acquired an eye disease at the beginning of the second month. Showers of tears flowed forth from his eyes like water flowing from a pot with a hole. He performed the dhammas of recluseship for the whole night, then went into the inner chamber at the arising of dawn and sat down. The monks, at the time of wandering for alms, went to the elder and said, "it is the time for wandering for alms, venerable sir."
"Well then, friends, carry my bowl and robe." Having had them take his own bowl and robe, he went out.
The monks, seeing the tears flowing from his eyes, asked, "What is this, venerable sir?"
"My eyes, friends, are stung by the wind."
"Were we not, venerable sir, given invitation by a doctor? We will speak to him."
"Very well, friends."
manussā The people gahetvā having got tesaṃ their paṭiññaṃ promise, paṭijaggitvā having tended to vihāraṃ a dwelling sampādetvā having finished rattiṭṭhānadivāṭṭhānāni places for night and places for day adaṃsu gave them [to the bhikkhus]. te They nibaddhaṃ always pavisanti went into tameva that very gāmaṃ village piṇḍāya for alms. atha Then eko one vejjo doctor upasaṅkamitvā having approached ne them, pavāresi invited iti thus: bhante "Venerable sir, hoti there is to be nāma certainly aphāsukampi indeed discomfort vasanaṭṭhāne in a dwelling place bahūnaṃ of many. tasmiṃ When that uppanne [is] arisen, katheyyātha you should tell mayhaṃ to me. karissāmi I will make bhesajjaṃ medicine. thero The elder, vassūpanāyikadivase on the day of entering the rains, āmantetvā having called te those bhikkhū bhikkhus, pucchi asked iti thus: “āvuso friends, katihi with how many iriyāpathehi postures vītināmessatha will you pass imaṃ this temāsaṃ three month period? iti [They replied] thus: “catūhi with four, bhante venerable sir. “kiṃ What? panetaṃ, but is this, āvuso friends,patirūpaṃ proper? nanu Is it not that bhavitabbaṃ it should be existed appamattehi with non-negligence? mayañhi For we āgatā came gahetvā having taken kammaṭṭhānaṃ a meditation santikā in the presence dharamānakassa of a living buddhassa Buddha. ca And buddhā Buddhas nāma indeed na are not sakkā able ārādhetuṃ to be pleased pamādena by one who is negligent; te they ārādhetabbā should be pleased kalyāṇajjhāsayena with the beautiful disposition vo of you all. ca And, pamattassa for one who is negligent nāma indeed cattāro the four apāyā [states of] loss sakagehasadisā [are] of a kind with one's own home. hothāvuso May you all, friends, appamattā [be] ones who are non-negligent. iti [They asked] thus: kiṃ "what pana as for tumhe you, bhante venerable sir?" iti [The elder replied] thus: ahaṃ "I vītināmessāmi will pass it tīhi with three iriyāpathehi postures; na pasāressāmi I will not stretch out piṭṭhiṃ [my] back, āvuso friends." iti [They replied] thus: sādhu, It is good, bhante venerable sir; hotha may you be appamattā non-negligent."
atha Then therassa while the elder anokkamantassa [was] not falling into niddaṃ sleep paṭhamamāse at the first month atikkante passing majjhimamāse at the second month sampatte being reached akkhirogo an eye disease uppajji arose. assudhārā Showers of tears paggharanti flowed forth akkhīhi from [his] eyes viya like udakadhārā the flow of water chiddaghaṭato from a pot with a hole. so He katvā having performed samaṇadhammaṃ the dhammas of a recluse sabbarattiṃ for the whole night pavisitvā having gone into gabbhaṃ the inner chamber aruṇuggamane at the arising of dawn, nisīdi sat down. bhikkhū The bhikkhus, bhikkhācāravelāya at the time of wandering for alms, gantvā went santikaṃ into the presence therassa of the elder, āhaṃsu spoke iti thus: bhikkhācāravelā "[it is] the time for wandering for alms, bhante venerable sir."
iti [The elder replied] thus: hi "Well “tena then, āvuso, friends, gaṇhatha take pattacīvaraṃ the bowl and robe." gāhāpetvā having caused [them] to take attano [his] own pattacīvaraṃ bowl and robe, nikkhami went out. bhikkhū The bhikkhus disvā having seen assūni the tears paggharante flowing out akkhīhi from the eyes tassa of him pucchiṃsu asked iti thus: “kimetaṃ "What is this, bhante venerable sir?”
me my akkhīni eyes, āvuso friends, vijjhanti are pierced vātā by the wind." iti [They asked] thus: nanu "Is it not bhante venerable sir pavāritamhā that we were invited vejjena by a doctor? kathema We will speak tassa to him." iti [The elder replied] thus: sādhāvuso "It is good, friends."
te vejjassa kathayiṃsu. so telaṃ pacitvā pesesi. thero nāsāya telaṃ āsiñcanto nisinnakova āsiñcitvā antogāmaṃ pāvisi. vejjo taṃ disvā āha — “bhante, ayyassa kira akkhīni vāto vijjhatī”ti? “āma, upāsakā”ti. “bhante, mayā telaṃ pacitvā pesitaṃ, nāsāya vo telaṃ āsittan”ti? “āma, upāsakā”ti. “idāni kīdisan”ti? “rujjateva upāsakā”ti. vejjo “mayā ekavāreneva vūpasamanasamatthaṃ telaṃ pahitaṃ, kiṃ nu kho rogo na vūpasanto”ti cintetvā, “bhante, nisīditvā vo telaṃ āsittaṃ, nipajjitvā”ti pucchi. thero tuṇhī ahosi, punappunaṃ pucchiyamānopi na kathesi. so “vihāraṃ gantvā therassa vasanaṭṭhānaṃ olokessāmī”ti cintetvā — “tena hi, bhante, gacchathā”ti theraṃ vissajjetvā vihāraṃ gantvā therassa vasanaṭṭhānaṃ olokento caṅkamananisīdanaṭṭhānameva disvā sayanaṭṭhānaṃ adisvā, “bhante, nisinnehi vo āsittaṃ, nipannehī”ti pucchi. thero tuṇhī ahosi. “mā, bhante, evaṃ karittha, samaṇadhammo nāma sarīraṃ yāpentena sakkā kātuṃ, nipajjitvā āsiñcathā”ti punappunaṃ yāci. “gaccha tvaṃ tāvāvuso, mantetvā jānissāmī”ti vejjaṃ uyyojesi.
therassa ca tattha neva ñātī, na sālohitā atthi, tena saddhiṃ manteyya? karajakāyena pana saddhiṃ mantento “vadehi tāva, āvuso pālita, tvaṃ kiṃ akkhīni olokessasi, udāhu buddhasāsanaṃ? anamataggasmiñhi saṃsāravaṭṭe tava akkhikāṇassa gaṇanā nāma natthi, anekāni pana buddhasatāni buddhasahassāni atītāni. tesu te ekabuddhopi na pariciṇṇo, idāni imaṃ antovassaṃ tayo māse na nipajjissāmīti temāsaṃ nibaddhavīriyaṃ karissāmi. tasmā te cakkhūni nassantu vā bhijjantu vā, buddhasāsanameva dhārehi, mā cakkhūnī”ti bhūtakāyaṃ ovadanto imā gāthāyo abhāsi —
“cakkhūni hāyantu mamāyitāni, sotāni hāyantu tatheva kāyo. sabbampidaṃ hāyatu dehanissitaṃ, kiṃ kāraṇā pālita tvaṃ pamajjasi.
“cakkhūni jīrantu mamāyitāni... “cakkhūni bhijjantu mamāyitān...
They spoke to the doctor, and he cooked some oil and sent it to them. The elder poured the oil into his nose while sitting and went into the town. The doctor, seeing him, said: "Venerable sir, I was told that the wind is piercing the eyes of the good sir."
"Yes, lay follower." "Venerable sir, I cooked and sent oil; did you pour the oil into your nose?" "Yes, lay follower." "Now how is it?" "Still hurting, lay follower."
The doctor, thinking, "the oil I sent was capable of relieving his sickness with only one application. Why then has the sickness not been relieved?" asked, "Venerable sir, did you pour the oil sitting or lying down?" The elder was silent. Though asked again and again, he didn't speak. The doctor, thinking, "I will go to the abode of the elder and see his place of dwelling," said to the elder, "well then, venerable sir, go ahead," and went to the abode of the elder. Looking over his dwelling place and seeing only the walking and sitting place - not seeing a lying place - he asked, "venerable sir, did you pour the oil sitting or lying?" The elder was silent. The doctor pleaded with him again and again, saying, "don't act like this, venerable sir! Truly, the dhamma of a recluse can only be performed by one who maintains the body. May you pour the oil lying down!" The elder dismissed the doctor, "go now, friend. I will hold a consultation and learn what I should do."
But in that place there were neither the elder's relations nor those of the same blood; therefore with whom should he consult? Consulting together just with his physical body, exhorting his formed body, saying, "speak then, friend Pālita! What, will you look after the eyes, or rather the religion of the Buddha? There is indeed no counting the number of times you have suffered blindness of the eyes in the rounds of samsara, which is without any graspable beginning. Further, many hundereds of Buddhas, many thousands of Buddhas have arisen in the past, and you did not attend upon even a single one of them. Now since I have promised I will not lie down in this rains for three months, I will make constant effort for those three months. Therefore, let your eyes be destroyed or broken, may you uphold just the religion of the Buddha, not the eyes!" spoke these verses:
The eyes may they perish, so dear to me; The ears may they perish, indeed, so the body. Yea, all this may it perish that is dependent on the body; For what reason, Palita, are you heedless? The eyes may they be destroyed... The eyes may they break...
te They kathayiṃsu spoke vejjassa to the doctor. so He pacitvā having cooked telaṃ some oil pesesi sent [it]. thero The elder āsiñcanto when pouring telaṃ the oil nāsāya into the nose, āsiñcitvā having poured [it] nisinnakova only sitting, pāvisi went into antogāmaṃ the town's interior. vejjo The doctor, disvā having seen taṃ him, āha spoke iti thus: “bhante "Venerable sir, kira it is said vāto the wind vijjhati pierces akkhīni the eyes ayyassa of the good sir." iti [The elder replied] thus: āma "Yes, upāsaka lay follower." iti [The doctor asked] thus: bhante "Venerable sir, pacitvā having cooked telaṃ oil pesitaṃ [it] was sent mayā by me; telaṃ [was] the oil āsittaṃ pouerd nāsāya in the nose vo of you?" iti [The elder replied] thus: “āma "Yes, upāsaka lay follower." iti [The doctor asked] thus: “idāni "Now, kīdisaṃ what state [is it]?" iti [The elder replied] thus: rujjateva "Still hurting, upāsaka lay follower." vejjo The doctor, cintetvā having thought iti thus: telaṃ "Oil pahitaṃ was sent mayā by me vūpasamanasamatthaṃ capable of relieving ekavāreneva with only one time. kiṃ What nu then kho indeed, rogo the sickness na not vūpasanto being relieved?" pucchi asked iti thus: bhante "Venerable sir, telaṃ [was] the oil āsittaṃ poured vo by you nisīditvā having sat down, nipajjitvā [or] having lied down?" thero The elder ahosi was tuṇhī silent. punappunaṃ Again and again pucchiyamānopi though being asked na kathesi he didn't speak. so He cintetvā having thought iti thus gantvā having gone “vihāraṃ to the abode therassa of the elder olokessāmi I will see vasanaṭṭhānaṃ [his] place of dwelling." vissajjetvā having answered theraṃ the elder iti thus: hi "Well tena then, bhante venerable sir, gacchatha go." gantvā having gone vihāraṃ to the abode therassa of the elder, olokento looking vasanaṭṭhānaṃ at the dwelling place, disvā having seen caṅkamananisīdanaṭṭhānameva only the walking and sitting place, adisvā having not seen sayanaṭṭhānaṃ a lying place, pucchi asked iti thus: bhante "Venerable sir, āsittaṃ [was] it poured vo by you nisinnehi sitting nipannehi or lying?" thero The elder ahosi was tuṇhī silent. yāci He requested him punappunaṃ again and again iti thus: mā "Don't karittha act evaṃ in this way bhante venerable sir! nāma Verily, samaṇadhammo the dhamma of a recluse sakkā are possible kātuṃ to perform yāpentena by one maintaining sarīraṃ the body. āsiñcatha May you pour nipajjitvā having lied down!" uyyojesi He dismissed vejjaṃ the doctor iti thus: gaccha "Go tvaṃ you tāvāvuso then, friend, mantetvā having consulted jānissāmi I will know."
ca And tattha in that place therassa of the elder atthi there were neva neither ñātī relatives na nor sālohitā those of the same blood; tena therefore saddhiṃ with [whom] manteyya should he consult? mantento Consulting saddhiṃ together pana just karajakāyena with the physical body, ovadanto exhorting bhūtakāyaṃ the formed body iti thus: “vadehi speak tāva then āvuso friend pālita Pālita. kiṃ What! tvaṃ You olokessasi will look after akkhīni the eyes, udāhu or rather buddhasāsanaṃ the religion of the Buddha? natthi There is not nāma verily gaṇanā counting tava to the extent akkhikāṇassa of the blindness of eyes saṃsāravaṭṭe in the rounds of samsara anamataggasmiñhi indeed without graspable beginning. pana But, anekāni many buddhasatāni hundereds of Buddhas buddhasahassāni many thousands of Buddhas atītāni [have] been in the past. tesu In regards to them na not ekabuddhopi even a single Buddha pariciṇṇo [was] attended upon te by you. idāni Now, iti [having promised] thus: na nipajjissāmi 'I will not lie down imaṃ antovassaṃ in this rains tayo for three māse months," karissāmi I will make nibaddhavīriyaṃ constant effort temāsaṃ for three months. tasmā Therefore, te let your cakkhūni eyes nassantu be destroyed vā or bhijjantu broken dhārehi may you uphold buddhasāsanameva just the religion of the Buddha, mā not cakkhūni the eyes!" abhāsi spoke imā these gāthāyo verses:
cakkhūni the eyes hāyantu may they perish mamāyitāni so dear to me sotāni the ears hāyantu may they perish tatheva indeed, so kāyo the body. sabbampidaṃ yea, all this hāyatu may it perish dehanissitaṃ that is dependent on the body kiṃ what kāraṇā [is] the reason pālita Palita tvaṃ you pamajjasi are heedless?
cakkhūni the eyes jīrantu may they be destroyed mamāyitāni so dear to me...
cakkhūni the eyes bhijjantu may they break mamāyitāni so dear to me...
evaṃ tīhi gāthāhi attano ovādaṃ datvā nisinnakova natthukammaṃ katvā gāmaṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi. vejjo taṃ disvā “kiṃ, bhante, natthukammaṃ katan”ti pucchi. “āma, upāsakā”ti. “kīdisaṃ, bhante”ti? “rujjateva upāsakā”ti. “nisīditvā vo, bhante, natthukammaṃ kataṃ, nipajjitvā”ti. thero tuṇhī ahosi, punappunaṃ pucchiyamānopi na kiñci kathesi. atha naṃ vejjo, “bhante, tumhe sappāyaṃ na karotha, ajjato paṭṭhāya ‘asukena me telaṃ pakkan’ti mā vadittha, ahampi ‘mayā vo telaṃ pakkan’ti na vakkhāmī”ti āha. so vejjena paccakkhāto vihāraṃ gantvā tvaṃ vejjenāpi paccakkhātosi, iriyāpathaṃ mā vissajji samaṇāti.
“paṭikkhitto tikicchāya, vejjenāpi vivajjito. niyato maccurājassa, kiṃ pālita pamajjasī”ti. —
imāya gāthāya attānaṃ ovaditvā samaṇadhammaṃ akāsi. athassa majjhimayāme atikkante apubbaṃ acarimaṃ akkhīni ceva kilesā ca bhijjiṃsu. so sukkhavipassako arahā hutvā gabbhaṃ pavisitvā nisīdi.
bhikkhū bhikkhācāravelāya āgantvā “bhikkhācārakālo, bhante”ti āhaṃsu. “kālo, āvuso”ti? “āma, bhante”ti. “tena hi gacchathā”ti. “kiṃ tumhe pana, bhante”ti? “akkhīni me, āvuso, parihīnānī”ti. te tassa akkhīni oloketvā assupuṇṇanettā hutvā, “bhante, mā cintayittha, mayaṃ vo paṭijaggissāmā”ti theraṃ samassāsetvā kattabbayuttakaṃ vattapaṭivattaṃ katvā gāmaṃ piṇḍāya pavisiṃsu. manussā theraṃ adisvā, “bhante, amhākaṃ ayyo kuhin”ti pucchitvā taṃ pavattiṃ sutvā yāguṃ pesetvā sayaṃ piṇḍapātamādāya gantvā theraṃ vanditvā pādamūle parivattamānā roditvā, “bhante, mayaṃ vo paṭijaggissāma, tumhe mā cintayitthā”ti samassāsetvā pakkamiṃsu.
Having exhorted himself with these three verses and performing the nose treatment just sitting down, he went into the town for alms. The doctor, seeing him, asked, "What, venerable sir, is the nose treatment complete?"
"Yes lay follower." "What is your condition, venerable sir?" "Still afflicted, lay follower." "Did you perform the nose treatment, venerable sir, sitting down or lying down?"
The elder was silent. Even being asked again and again, not anything did he say. Then, the doctor spoke to him thus: "Venerable sir, you are not acting appropriately. From today onward, may you not say, 'such a one cooked oil for me.' Furthermore, I will not say I cooked oil for you." The elder, rejected by the doctor, having gone to his residence, thought, "you have been rejected even by the doctor. Do not relinquish your posture, recluse!"
Rejected by a medic, even by a doctor forsaken.
When the king of death is certain, what, Pālita, are you heedless?
Having exhorted himself with this verse, he performed the dhamma of a recluse. Then, with the passing of the middle watch of the night, both his eyes and his defilements were destroyed, neither before nor after one another. He, as a dry-insight arahant, entered into the inner chamber and sat down.
The monks, having come at the time for going for alms, said, "it is time to go for alms, venerable sir." "Is it the time, friends?" "Yes, venerable sir." "In that case, you go." "But what about you, venerable sir?" "My eyes, friends, are destroyed."
They examined his eyes and reassured the elder with their own eyes full of tears, "venerable sir, worry not! We will take care of you." Having performed the duties and counter-duties for the elder according to what should be done, they went into the town for alms. People, not seeing the elder, asked, "Venerable sirs, where is our elder?" Hearing his story, they sent rice gruel and went themselves with alms-food and other things. Having paid homage to the elder and crying while rolling around at his feet, they reassured him, "venerable sir, we will take care of you, don't you worry." and left.
evaṃ in this way, datvā having given ovādaṃ a lecture attano to himself tīhi with three gāthāhi verses katvā having done natthukammaṃ the nose treatment nisinnakova just sitting down pāvisi went into gāmaṃ the town piṇḍāya for alms. vejjo The doctor disvā having seen taṃ him, pucchi asked iti thus: kiṃ, "What, bhante venerable sir, natthukammaṃ is the nose treatment kataṃ done?" iti [The elder replied] thus: āma "Yes upāsaka lay follower." iti [The doctor inquired] thus: kīdisaṃ "What state [is it in], bhante venerable sir?" iti [The elder replied] thus: rujjateva "[It] still is afflicted, upāsaka lay follower." iti [The doctor inquired] thus: natthukammaṃ "Was the nose treatment kataṃ done vo by you bhante venerable sir nisīditvā having sat down nipajjitvā [or] having lay down?" thero The elder ahosi was tuṇhī silent. pucchiyamānopi Even being asked punappunaṃ again and again, na not kiñci anything kathesi did he say. atha Then, naṃ to him vejjo doctor āha spoke iti thus: bhante "Venerable sir, tumhe you na are not karotha doing sappāyaṃ what is appropriate. paṭṭhāya Starting ajjato from today, mā may you not vadittha speak iti thus: asukena "By such a one, telaṃ oil pakkaṃ was cooked me for me." ahampi Furthermore, I na vakkhāmi will not speak iti thus: mayā "By me telaṃ oil pakkaṃ was cooked vo for you." so He, paccakkhāto rejected vejjena by the doctor, gantvā having gone vihāraṃ to the residence, iti [thought] thus: tvaṃ "You asi are paccakkhāto one who has been rejected vejjenāpi even by the doctor. mā Do not vissajji give up iriyāpathaṃ your posture, samaṇa recluse!" ovaditvā having exhorted attānaṃ himself imāya with this gāthāya verse iti thus:
paṭikkhitto Rejected tikicchāya by a medic, api even vejjena by a doctor vivajjito forsaken. maccurājassa When the king of death niyato [is] certain, kiṃ what, pālita Pālita, pamajjasi are you heedless?
akāsi he performed samaṇadhammaṃ the dhamma of a recluse. atha Then, assa for him majjhimayāme at [the time of] the middle watch atikkante passing apubbaṃ not before acarimaṃ not after eva both akkhīni the eyes ca and kilesā the defilements bhijjiṃsu were destroyed. so He, hutvā having become sukkhavipassako a dry-insight arahā arahant, pavisitvā having entered into gabbhaṃ the inner chamber, nisīdi sat down. bhikkhū The monks, āgantvā having come bhikkhācāravelāya at the time for going for alms, āhaṃsu spoke iti thus: bhikkhācārakālo "[It is] the time for going for alms, bhante venerable sir." iti [The elder asked] thus: kālo "Is it the time, āvuso friends?" iti [The monks replied] thus: “āma "Yes, bhante venerable sir." iti [The elder spoke] thus: tena hi "In that case, gacchatha go." iti [The monks asked] thus: pana "But kiṃ what tumhe about you, bhante venerable sir?" iti [The elder replied] thus: me "My akkhīni eyes, āvuso friends, parihīnāni are destroyed."
te They, oloketvā having examined tassa his akkhīni eyes, hutvā having become assupuṇṇanettā with eyes full of tears, samassāsetvā having reassured theraṃ the elder iti thus: bhante "Venerable sir, mā don't cintayittha think! mayaṃ We paṭijaggissāma will take care vo of you." katvā having done vattapaṭivattaṃ the duties and counter-duties kattabbayuttakaṃ associated with what should be done, pavisiṃsu went into gāmaṃ the town piṇḍāya for alms.
manussā People adisvā not seeing theraṃ the elder, pucchitvā having asked iti thus: bhante "Venerable sirs, kuhiṃ where [is] amhākaṃ our ayyo elder?" sutvā Having heard taṃ his pavattiṃ goings-on pesetvā having sent yāguṃ conjey, gantvā having gone sayaṃ themselves piṇḍapātamādāya with alms-food and so on, vanditvā having paid homage theraṃ to the elder, roditvā having cried parivattamānā rolling around pādamūle in the area around his feet, samassāsetvā having reassured him iti thus: bhante "Venerable sir, mayaṃ we paṭijaggissāma will take care vo of you, mā don't tumhe you cintayittha think." pakkamiṃsu left.
tato paṭṭhāya nibaddhaṃ yāgubhattaṃ vihārameva pesenti. theropi itare saṭṭhi bhikkhū nirantaraṃ ovadati. te tassovāde ṭhatvā upakaṭṭhāya pavāraṇāya sabbeva saha paṭisambhidāhi arahattaṃ pāpuṇiṃsu. te vuṭṭhavassā ca pana satthāraṃ daṭṭhukāmā hutvā theramāhaṃsu, “bhante, satthāraṃ daṭṭhukāmamhā”ti. thero tesaṃ vacanaṃ sutvā cintesi — “ahaṃ dubbalo, antarāmagge ca amanussapariggahitā aṭavī atthi, mayi etehi saddhiṃ gacchante sabbe kilamissanti, bhikkhampi labhituṃ na sakkhissanti, ime puretarameva pesessāmī”ti. atha ne āha — “āvuso, tumhe purato gacchathā”ti. “tumhe pana bhante”ti? “ahaṃ dubbalo, antarāmagge ca amanussapariggahitā aṭavī atthi, mayi tumhehi saddhiṃ gacchante sabbe kilamissatha, tumhe purato gacchathā”ti. “mā, bhante, evaṃ karittha, mayaṃ tumhehi saddhiṃyeva gamissāmā”ti. “mā vo, āvuso, evaṃ ruccittha, evaṃ sante mayhaṃ aphāsukaṃ bhavissati, mayhaṃ kaniṭṭho pana tumhe disvā pucchissati, athassa mama cakkhūnaṃ parihīnabhāvaṃ āroceyyātha, so mayhaṃ santikaṃ kañcideva pahiṇissati, tena saddhiṃ āgacchissāmi, tumhe mama vacanena dasabalañca asītimahāthere ca vandathā”ti te uyyojesi.
te theraṃ khamāpetvā antogāmaṃ pavisiṃsu. manussā te disvā nisīdāpetvā bhikkhaṃ datvā “kiṃ, bhante, ayyānaṃ gamanākāro paññāyatī”ti? “āma, upāsakā, satthāraṃ daṭṭhukāmamhā”ti. te punappunaṃ yācitvā tesaṃ gamanachandameva ñatvā anugantvā paridevitvā nivattiṃsu. tepi anupubbena jetavanaṃ gantvā satthārañca asītimahāthere ca therassa vacanena vanditvā punadivase yattha therassa kaniṭṭho vasati, taṃ vīthiṃ piṇḍāya pavisiṃsu. kuṭumbiko te sañjānitvā nisīdāpetvā katapaṭisanthāro “bhātikatthero me, bhante, kuhin”ti pucchi. athassa te taṃ pavattiṃ ārocesuṃ. so taṃ sutvāva tesaṃ pādamūle parivattento roditvā pucchi — “idāni, bhante, kiṃ kātabban”ti? “thero ito kassaci āgamanaṃ paccāsīsati, tassa gatakāle tena saddhiṃ āgamissatī”ti.
From then onwards, they sent gruel and rice to the residence without break. As for the elder, he exhorted the other sixty monks continuously and they, based on his exhortation, attained to arahantship as a whole, together with the paṭisambhidās, with the approaching invitation day. Then, coming out from the rains retreat, they were desirous of seeing the teacher and so said to the elder, "venerable sir, we are desirous of seeing the teacher." The elder having heard this, thought, "I am of little strength and along the path there are forests possessed by non-humans. If I go together with these monks, they all will be wearied and will not be able to obtain alms. I will send these monks ahead." So he said to them, "Friends, you all go ahead."
"But what about you, venerable sir?" "I am of little strength and along the path there are forests possessed by non-humans. If I go together with you, you will be wearied. You go ahead." "Don't act so, venerable sir. Indeed, we will go together with you."
He dismissed them, saying "don't you lament, friends. If you do, there will be discomfort for me. My younger brother will inquire about me when he sees you. Tell him, then, of the broken state of my eyes. He will send someone or other to me; I will come with that person. Please, may you all pay homage on my behalf to the Ten-Powered One and the eighty great elders."
They, obtaining the elder's forgiveness, went into the town. People, seeing them, had them sit down, gave them alms, and asked, "what, venerable sirs, it appears the good sirs are going!"
"Yes, lay-followers, we are desirous of seeing the teacher."
The people, after pleading again and again and coming to know their sure intention of going, followed after them lamenting, then turned back. So, the monks, after travelling incrementally to Jetavana, paid homage on behalf of the elder to the teacher and the eighty great elders. The next day they went for alms to the street where the elder's younger brother lived. The householder, recognizing them, made them sit down and performed various acts of hospitality, then asked them, "Where, venerable sirs, is my older brother?"
So they told him his story. Hearing it, he cried, rolling around at their feet, then asked, "now, venerable sirs, what should be done?"
"The elder is expecting someone from here to come. When he goes, he will come together with him."
tato From then paṭṭhāya onwards, pesenti they sent yāgubhattaṃ conjey and rice vihārameva to the residence itself nibaddhaṃ without break. theropi As for the elder, ovadati he exhorted itare the other saṭṭhi sixty bhikkhū monks nirantaraṃ without break. te They, ṭhatvā standing tassovāde in his exhortation, upakaṭṭhāya with the approaching pavāraṇāya invitation sabbeva the whole lot pāpuṇiṃsu attained arahattaṃ to arahantship saha together paṭisambhidāhi with the paṭisambhidās. ca pana And then, te they, vuṭṭhavassā emerging from the rains, hutvā having become daṭṭhukāmā desirous of seeing satthāraṃ the teacher, theramāhaṃsu spoke to the elder iti thus: “bhante "Venerable sir, daṭṭhukāmamha we are desirous of seeing satthāraṃ the teacher." thero The elder sutvā having heard tesaṃ their vacanaṃ speech, cintesi thought iti thus: ahaṃ "I dubbalo [am] of poor strength ca and antarāmagge along the path atthi there are aṭavī forests amanussapariggahitā possessed by non-humans. mayi In me gacchante going saddhiṃ together etehi with these sabbe all kilamissanti will be wearied. api Further, na sakkhissanti they will not be able labhituṃ to obtain bhikkhaṃ alms. pesessāmi I will send ime these puretarameva first of all. atha Then, ne to them āha he spoke iti thus: āvuso "Friends, tumhe you all gacchatha go purato ahead." iti [The monks asked] thus: pana "But tumhe what about you, bhante venerable sir?" iti [The elder replied] thus: ahaṃ "I dubbalo [am] of poor strength ca and antarāmagge along the path atthi there are aṭavī forests amanussapariggahitā possessed by non-humans. mayi In me gacchante going saddhiṃ together tumhehi with you all sabbe you all kilamissatha will be wearied. tumhe You all gacchatha go purato ahead." iti [The monks spoke] thus: mā "Don't, bhante venerable sir, karittha act evaṃ thus. mayaṃ We gamissāma will go saddhiṃyeva indeed together tumhehi with you.” uyyojesi He dismissed te them iti thus: mā "Don't vo you āvuso friends ruccittha lament evaṃ thus. evaṃ Thus sante being so, bhavissati there will be aphāsukaṃ discomfort mayhaṃ for me. pana But, mayhaṃ my kaniṭṭho younger brother disvā having seen tumhe you pucchissati will inquire; atha then āroceyyātha relate assa to him parihīnabhāvaṃ the state of being destroyed mama of my cakkhūnaṃ eyes. so He pahiṇissati will send kañcideva someone or other santikaṃ to the presence mayhaṃ of me. saddhiṃ Together tena with that person āgacchissāmi I will come. tumhe You all vandatha pay homage mama with my vacanena words dasabalaṃ to the Ten-powered One ca and asītimahāthere the eighty great elders.
te They, theraṃ khamāpetvā having made the elder forgive them, pavisiṃsu went into antogāmaṃ the inside of the town. manussā People disvā having seen te them nisīdāpetvā having made them sit down datvā having given bhikkhaṃ alms, iti [asked] thus: “kiṃ, "What, bhante venerable sirs, paññāyati there appears gamanākāro the appearance of going ayyānaṃ of the sirs." iti [The monks replied] thus: āma "Yes, upāsakā lay-followers, daṭṭhukāmamha we are desirous of seeing satthāraṃ the teacher." te They, yācitvā having pleaded punappunaṃ again and again, ñatvā having known tesaṃ their gamanachandameva sure intention of going anugantvā having gone after, paridevitvā having lamented, nivattiṃsu turned back. tepi And they (the monks) gantvā having gone anupubbena incrementally jetavanaṃ to Jetavana, vanditvā having paid homage vacanena with the words therassa of the elder satthāraṃ to the teacher ca and asītimahāthere the eighty great elders, punadivase on the next day, pavisiṃsu they went into taṃ that vīthiṃ street yattha where therassa the elder's kaniṭṭho younger brother vasati lived piṇḍāya for alms. kuṭumbiko The householder sañjānitvā having recognized te them, nisīdāpetvā having caused them to sit down, katapaṭisanthāro acting hospitably, pucchi asked them iti thus: kuhiṃ "Where, bhante venerable sirs, me [is] my “bhātikatthero older brother?" atha Then te they ārocesuṃ told taṃ his pavattiṃ goings-on assa to him. so He, sutvāva upon hearing taṃ that, roditvā having cried parivattento rolling around tesaṃ at their pādamūle feet pucchi asked iti thus: “idāni now, bhante venerable sirs, kiṃ what kātabbaṃ should be done?" iti [The monks replied] thus: thero "The elder paccāsīsati is expecting āgamanaṃ the coming kassaci of someone ito from here. gatakāle At the going time tassa of him, āgamissati he will come saddhiṃ together tena with him.
“ayaṃ me, bhante, bhāgineyyo pālito nāma, etaṃ pesethā”ti. “evaṃ pesetuṃ na sakkā, magge paripantho atthi, taṃ pabbājetvā pesetuṃ vaṭṭatī”ti. “evaṃ katvā pesetha, bhante”ti. atha naṃ pabbājetvā aḍḍhamāsamattaṃ pattacīvaraggahaṇādīni sikkhāpetvā maggaṃ ācikkhitvā pahiṇiṃsu.
so anupubbena taṃ gāmaṃ patvā gāmadvāre ekaṃ mahallakaṃ disvā, “imaṃ gāmaṃ nissāya koci āraññako vihāro atthī”ti pucchi. “atthi, bhante”ti. “ko nāma tattha vasatī”ti? “pālitatthero nāma, bhante”ti. “maggaṃ me ācikkhathā”ti. “kosi tvaṃ, bhante”ti? “therassa bhāgineyyomhī”ti. atha naṃ gahetvā vihāraṃ nesi. so theraṃ vanditvā aḍḍhamāsamattaṃ vattapaṭivattaṃ katvā theraṃ sammā paṭijaggitvā, “bhante, mātulakuṭumbiko me tumhākaṃ āgamanaṃ paccāsīsati, etha, gacchāmā”ti āha. “tena hi imaṃ me yaṭṭhikoṭiṃ gaṇhāhī”ti. so yaṭṭhikoṭiṃ gahetvā therena saddhiṃ antogāmaṃ pāvisi. manussā theraṃ nisīdāpetvā “kiṃ, bhante, gamanākāro vo paññāyatī”ti pucchiṃsu. “āma, upāsakā, gantvā satthāraṃ vandissāmī”ti. te nānappakārena yācitvā alabhantā theraṃ uyyojetvā upaḍḍhapathaṃ gantvā roditvā nivattiṃsu.
sāmaṇero theraṃ yaṭṭhikoṭiyā ādāya gacchanto antarāmagge aṭaviyaṃ kaṭṭhanagaraṃ nāma therena upanissāya vuṭṭhapubbaṃ gāmaṃ sampāpuṇi, so gāmato nikkhamitvā araññe gītaṃ gāyitvā dārūni uddharantiyā ekissā itthiyā gītasaddaṃ sutvā sare nimittaṃ gaṇhi. itthisaddo viya hi añño saddo purisānaṃ sakalasarīraṃ pharitvā ṭhātuṃ samattho nāma natthi. tenāha bhagavā — “nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekasaddampi samanupassāmi, yaṃ evaṃ purisassa cittaṃ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati, yathayidaṃ, bhikkhave, itthisaddo”ti (AN 1.2). sāmaṇero tattha nimittaṃ gahetvā yaṭṭhikoṭiṃ vissajjetvā “tiṭṭhatha tāva, bhante, kiccaṃ me atthī”ti tassā santikaṃ gato. sā taṃ disvā tuṇhī ahosi. so tāya saddhiṃ sīlavipattiṃ pāpuṇi.
"Venerable sirs, there is this nephew of mine named Pālita; please send him." "It is not possible to send such a one; on the way there is danger. It is possible to send him after having him go forth." "Please do so and send him, venerable sirs."
So, they gave him the going forth, trained him for just a half-month in things like how to carry the bowl and robe, and so on, then explained the path to him and sent him away. He reached that town by increment and, seeing an old man at the town gate, asked, "is there some forested residence dependent on this town?" "There is, venerable sir." "What is the name of he who dwells therein?" "His name is Elder Pālita, venerable sir." "Please point out the way to me." "Who are you, venerable sir?" "I am the nephew of the elder."
So, he took the novice and led him to the residence. The novice paid respect to the elder, performed the duties and counter-duties for the elder and cared properly for the elder for the period of a half-month. He then said, "venerable sir, my uncle the householder is expecting you to come with me; come, let us go." "Well, in that case, take this end of my walking stick."
He took the end of the walking stick and went into the town together with the elder. The people had the elder sit down and asked "What, venerable sir, it appears as though you are going!" "Yes, lay followers, I will go to pay respect to the teacher."
They begged in many ways and, not obtaining their wish for him to stay, sent the elder off. Having gone halfway down the road, they cried and turned back. The novice, going and taking the elder by the end of his walking stick, came to a town in the forest along the way named Kaṭṭha City, which, previous to the rains, the elder had lived dependent on. Leaving the town, the novice heard the sound of the song of a woman in the forest, who was singing while collecting firewood, and he became fixed on to the character of femininity in the voice. Indeed, there is certainly not any other sound that has power like the sound of a woman to pervade a man's entire being and hold him fast. For this reason the Blessed One said, "I do not, monks, perceive another single sound which, having encompassed the mind of a man, becomes so fixed therein as the sound of a woman (AN 1.2)."
The novice, fixated on the tone of the voice, released the end of the elder's walking stick, saying, "stay for now, venerable sir, I have some business to attend to," went to her. She, on seeing him, fell silent, and he came to violate his morality with her.
iti [The householder spoke] thus: bhante "Venerable sirs, ayaṃ [there is] this bhāgineyyo nephew me of mine nāma named pālito Pālita; pesetha may you send etaṃ him." iti [The monks spoke] thus: na "It is not sakkā possible pesetuṃ to send evaṃ such a one; magge on the way atthi there is paripantho danger. vaṭṭati It is possible pesetuṃ to send taṃ him pabbājetvā having gone forth." iti [The householder spoke] thus: katvā "Having done evaṃ so, pesetha may you send [him], bhante venerable sirs." atha Then naṃ pabbājetvā [they] having caused him to go forth, sikkhāpetvā having caused him to train in pattacīvaraggahaṇādīni the carrying of bowl and robe, etc. aḍḍhamāsamattaṃ for just half a month, ācikkhitvā having explained maggaṃ the path, pahiṇiṃsu sent him away.
He patvā having reached taṃ that gāmaṃ
town anupubbena incrementally, disvā having seen ekaṃ
one mahallakaṃ old man gāmadvāre at the town gate
pucchi asked iti thus: atthi "Is there koci
some āraññako forested vihāro residence nissāya
dependent on “imaṃ this gāmaṃ town?" iti
[The old man replied] thus: atthi "There is, bhante
venerable sir." iti [He asked] thus: ko "Who
nāma by name vasati dwells tattha therein?"
iti [The old man replied] thus: pālitatthero "[He
is Elder Pālita nāma by name, bhante venerable sir."
iti [He spoke] thus: ācikkhatha please point out
maggaṃ the way me to me." iti [The old
man asked] thus: kosi "Who are tvaṃ you, bhante
venerable sir?" iti [He replied] thus: bhāgineyyomhi
"I am the nephew therassa of the elder." atha
Then, gahetvā having taken naṃ him nesi he
led [him] vihāraṃ to the residence.
so He, vanditvā having paid respect theraṃ to the elder, katvā having done vattapaṭivattaṃ the duties and counter-duties, paṭijaggitvā having cared sammā properly theraṃ for the elder aḍḍhamāsamattaṃ for the period of half a month, āha spoke iti thus: “bhante "Venerable sir, mātulakuṭumbiko my uncle the householder paccāsīsati is expecting āgamanaṃ the coming tumhākaṃ of you me with me; etha come, gacchāma let us go." iti [The elder replied] thus: hi "Well, tena in that case, gaṇhāhi take imaṃ this me yaṭṭhikoṭiṃ end of my walking stick." so He, gahetvā having taken yaṭṭhikoṭiṃ the end of the walking stick, pāvisi went into antogāmaṃ the inside of the town saddhiṃ together therena with the elder.
manussā People, theraṃ nisīdāpetvā having made the elder sit down, pucchiṃsu asked iti thus: kiṃ "What, bhante venerable sir, paññāyati there appears vo gamanākāro the appearance of your going." iti [The elder replied] thus: āma Yes, upāsakā lay followers, gantvā having gone, vandissāmi I will pay respect satthāraṃ to the teacher." te They, yācitvā having begged nānappakārena in many ways, alabhantā not obtaining [their wish for him to stay], uyyojetvā sending off theraṃ the elder gantvā having gone upaḍḍhapathaṃ halfway down the road, roditvā cried nivattiṃsu and turned back.
sāmaṇero The novice, gacchanto going ādāya having taken theraṃ the elder yaṭṭhikoṭiyā by the end of his walking stick, antarāmagge along the way sampāpuṇi reached gāmaṃ a town aṭaviyaṃ in the forest nāma named kaṭṭhanagaraṃ Kaṭṭha City vuṭṭhapubbaṃ which previous to the rains upanissāya had been depended on therena by the elder. so He nikkhamitvā having gone out gāmato of the town, sutvā heard araññe in the forest gītasaddaṃ the sound of the song ekissā of one itthiyā woman uddharantiyā [who was] collecting dārūni firewood gāyitvā singing gītaṃ a song, gaṇhi grasped nimittaṃ the sign (of femininity) sare in the sound. hi Indeed, añño another saddo sound viya like itthisaddo the sound of a woman purisānaṃ for a man [which], pharitvā having pervaded sakalasarīraṃ the whole body, samattho is capable ṭhātuṃ to stay nāma indeed natthi there is not. tenāha For this reason spoke bhagavā the Blessed One:
nāhaṃ I do not, bhikkhave monks, samanupassāmi perceive aññaṃ another ekasaddampi single sound yaṃ which evaṃ so tiṭṭhati stays pariyādāya having encompassed cittaṃ the mind purisassa of a man, yathayidaṃ which is to say, bhikkhave monks, itthisaddo the sound of a woman." (a. ni. 1.2)
sāmaṇero The novice, gahetvā having grasped nimittaṃ the sign tattha in that [voice] vissajjetvā having released yaṭṭhikoṭiṃ the end of the walking stick, iti [having spoken] thus: tiṭṭhatha stay tāva for now, bhante venerable sir, atthi there is kiccaṃ business me of mine." gato went santikaṃ to the presence tassā of her. sā She disvā having seen taṃ him, ahosi was tuṇhī silent. so He, saddhiṃ together tāya with her, pāpuṇi attained sīlavipattiṃ a falling away from morality.
thero cintesi — “idāneva eko gītasaddo suyyittha. so ca kho itthiyā saddo chijji, sāmaṇeropi cirāyati, so tāya saddhiṃ sīlavipattiṃ patto bhavissatī”ti. sopi attano kiccaṃ niṭṭhāpetvā āgantvā “gacchāma, bhante”ti āha. atha naṃ thero pucchi — “pāpojātosi sāmaṇerā”ti. so tuṇhī hutvā therena punappunaṃ puṭṭhopi na kiñci kathesi. atha naṃ thero āha — “tādisena pāpena mama yaṭṭhikoṭiggahaṇakiccaṃ natthī”ti.
so saṃvegappatto kāsāyāni apanetvā gihiniyāmena paridahitvā, “bhante, ahaṃ pubbe sāmaṇero, idāni panamhi gihī jāto, pabbajantopi ca svāhaṃ na saddhāya pabbajito, maggaparipanthabhayena pabbajito, etha gacchāmā”ti āha. “āvuso, gihipāpopi samaṇapāpopi pāpoyeva, tvaṃ samaṇabhāve ṭhatvāpi sīlamattaṃ pūretuṃ nāsakkhi, gihī hutvā kiṃ nāma kalyāṇaṃ karissasi, tādisena pāpena mama yaṭṭhikoṭiggahaṇakiccaṃ natthī”ti āha. “bhante, amanussupaddavo maggo, tumhe ca andhā apariṇāyakā, kathaṃ idha vasissathā”ti? atha naṃ thero, “āvuso, tvaṃ mā evaṃ cintayi, idheva me nipajjitvā marantassāpi aparāparaṃ parivattantassāpi tayā saddhiṃ gamanaṃ nāma natthī”ti vatvā imā gāthā abhāsi —
“handāhaṃ hatacakkhusmi, kantāraddhānamāgato. seyyamāno na gacchāmi, natthi bāle sahāyatā.
“handāhaṃ hatacakkhusmi, kantāraddhānamāgato. marissāmi no gamissāmi, natthi bāle sahāyatā”ti.
taṃ sutvā itaro saṃvegajāto “bhāriyaṃ vata me sāhasikaṃ ananucchavikaṃ kammaṃ katan”ti bāhā paggayha kandanto vanasaṇḍaṃ pakkhanditvā tathā pakkantova ahosi.
The elder thought, "just now the sound of a song was heard, and now that sound of a woman has broken off. Further, the novice delays. He will certainly violate his morality with her." Then the novice, having completed his business, came and said, "let us go, venerable sir."
The elder asked him, "have you given rise to evil, novice?"
The novice was silent and said nothing even when questioned by the elder again and again.
Then the elder said to him, "One of such evil has no business taking the end of my walking stick."
The novice, becoming agitated, took off the ochre robes, clothed himself in the fashion of a householder, and said, "Venerable sir, I was a novice before, but now I have become a householder. And indeed, when going forth, I did it without faith; I went forth rather out of fear of the obstacles along the way. Come, let us go."
"Friend, whether the evil of a householder or the evil of a novice, it is still evil. Even when established in the state of a recluse you were not able to fulfil simple morality; having become a householder, what? Will you act beautifully? One of such evil has no business taking the end of my walking stick."
"Venerable sir! The path is disturbed by non-humans and you are blind! Without a guide, how will you stay here?"
The elder said, "friend, don't think of it. Even if I should die, lying down right here, or if I should wander around and around in circles, there will certainly be no going together with you," and spoke these verses:
"Now! With eyes destroyed, come half-way through the wilderness;
Better-minded, I will not go - there is no friendship with fools.
"Now! With eyes destroyed, come half-way through the wilderness;
I will die; I will not go - there is no friendship with fools."
Hearing this, the novice became agitated once more and said, "heavy indeed is this savage, improper deed I have done!" Raising his arms and wailing, he rushed forth into the thick jungle, and disappeared in such a state.
thero The elder cintesi thought iti thus: idāneva Just now eko one gītasaddo sound of a song suyyittha was heard. ca And kho indeed so that saddo sound itthiyā of a woman chijji has broken off. sāmaṇeropi Further, the novice cirāyati dwells. so He, saddhiṃ together tāya with her, bhavissati will become patto one who has attained sīlavipattiṃ a falling away from morality." sopi Then, he niṭṭhāpetvā having brought to completion attano his own kiccaṃ business āgantvā having come, āha spoke iti thus: gacchāma "Let us go, bhante venerable sir." atha Then thero the elder pucchi asked naṃ him iti thus: pāpojātosi are you one who has given rise to evil, sāmaṇera novice?" so He hutvā having remained tuṇhī silent kathesi said na not kiñci anything puṭṭhopi even being questioned therena by the elder punappunaṃ again and again. atha Then, thero the elder āha spoke naṃ to him iti thus: natthi "There is no mama yaṭṭhikoṭiggahaṇakiccaṃ business of taking the end of my walking stick tādisena by one of such pāpena evil."
so He, saṃvegappatto reaching a state of agitation apanetvā having taken off kāsāyāni the ochre robes paridahitvā having clothed gihiniyāmena in the fashion of a householder, āha spoke iti thus: bhante "Venerable sir, ahaṃ I sāmaṇero [was] a novice pubbe in the past; pana but idāni now amhi I am jāto become gihī a householder. ca And pabbajantopi indeed, when going forth, svāhaṃ I [was] one who pabbajito went forth na not saddhāya with faith; pabbajito [I was] one who went forth maggaparipanthabhayena out of fear of the obstacles along the way. etha Come, gacchāma let us go." āha [The elder] spoke iti thus:
āvuso "Friend, gihipāpopi whether the evil of a householder samaṇapāpopi or the evil of a novice, pāpoyeva [it is] still evil. tvaṃ You ṭhatvāpi even when standing samaṇabhāve in the state of a recluse, nāsakkhi were not able pūretuṃ to bring to fulfilment sīlamattaṃ the extent of morality; hutvā having become gihī a householder, kiṃ what nāma indeed karissasi will you do kalyāṇaṃ what is beautiful? natthi There is no mama yaṭṭhikoṭiggahaṇakiccaṃ business in taking the end of my walking stick tādisena by one of such pāpena evil."
iti [The householder asked] thus: bhante "Venerable sir! maggo The path amanussupaddavo [is] disturbed by non-humans ca and tumhe you andhā [are] blind! apariṇāyakā Without a guide, kathaṃ how vasissatha will you stay idha here?" atha Then, thero the elder, vatvā having spoken naṃ to him iti thus: āvuso "Friend, mā don't tvaṃ you cintayi think evaṃ thus. api Even marantassa while I should die, nipajjitvā it having been laid down me by me idheva right here, api or parivattantassa while I should wander in circles aparāparaṃ again and again, nāma natthi there will be indeed no gamanaṃ going saddhiṃ together tayā with you." abhāsi spoke imā these gāthā verses:
“handāhaṃ "Come! I hatacakkhusmi with eyes destroyed kantāraddhānamāgato come half-way through the wilderness; seyyamāno Better-minded na gacchāmi I will not go - natthi there is no sahāyatā friendship bāle with fools.
“handāhaṃ "Come! I hatacakkhusmi with eyes destroyed kantāraddhānamāgato come half-way through the wilderness; marissāmi I will die no gacchāmi I will not go - natthi there is no sahāyatā friendship bāle with fools."
sutvā having heard taṃ that itaro once more saṃvegajāto [he] became agitated, iti [and spoke] thus: bhāriyaṃ heavy vata indeed sāhasikaṃ [is] the savage ananucchavikaṃ improper kammaṃ deed kataṃ done me by me!" paggayha raising bāhā [his] arms kandanto and wailing, pakkhanditvā having rushed forth vanasaṇḍaṃ into the thick jungle, ahosi he was pakkanto gone eva just tathā thus.
therassāpi sīlatejena saṭṭhiyojanāyāmaṃ paññāsayojanavitthataṃ pannarasayojanabahalaṃ jayasumanapupphavaṇṇaṃ nisīdanuṭṭhahanakālesu onamanunnamanapakatikaṃ sakkassa devarañño paṇḍukambalasilāsanaṃ uṇhākāraṃ dassesi. sakko “ko nu kho maṃ ṭhānā cāvetukāmo”ti olokento dibbena cakkhunā theraṃ addasa. tenāhu porāṇā —
“sahassanetto devindo, dibbacakkhuṃ visodhayi. pāpagarahī ayaṃ pālo, ājīvaṃ parisodhayi.
“sahassanetto ... dhammagaruko ayaṃ pālo, nisinno sāsane rato”ti.
athassa etadahosi — “sacāhaṃ evarūpassa pāpagarahino dhammagarukassa ayyassa santikaṃ na gamissāmi, muddhā me sattadhā phaleyya, gamissāmi tassa santikan”ti. tato —
“sahassanetto devindo, devarajjasirindharo. taṅkhaṇena āgantvāna, cakkhupālamupāgami”. —
upagantvā ca pana therassa avidūre padasaddamakāsi. atha naṃ thero pucchi — “ko eso”ti? “ahaṃ, bhante, addhiko”ti. “kuhiṃ yāsi upāsakā”ti? “sāvatthiyaṃ, bhante”ti. “yāhi, āvuso”ti. “ayyo pana, bhante, kuhiṃ gamissatī”ti? “ahampi tattheva gamissāmī”ti. “tena hi ekatova gacchāma, bhante”ti. “ahaṃ, āvuso, dubbalo, mayā saddhiṃ gacchantassa tava papañco bhavissatī”ti. “mayhaṃ accāyikaṃ natthi, ahampi ayyena saddhiṃ gacchanto dasasu puññakiriyavatthūsu ekaṃ labhissāmi, ekatova gacchāma, bhante”ti. thero “eso sappuriso bhavissatī”ti cintetvā — “tena hi saddhiṃ gamissāmi, yaṭṭhikoṭiṃ gaṇha upāsakā”ti āha. sakko tathā katvā pathaviṃ saṅkhipanto sāyanhasamaye jetavanaṃ sampāpesi. thero saṅkhapaṇavādisaddaṃ sutvā “kattheso saddo”ti pucchi. “sāvatthiyaṃ, bhante”ti? “pubbe mayaṃ gamanakāle cirena gamimhā”ti. “ahaṃ ujumaggaṃ jānāmi, bhante”ti. tasmiṃ khaṇe thero “nāyaṃ manusso, devatā bhavissatī”ti sallakkhesi.
However, by the glory of the elder's virtue, the Orange-Blanketed Stone Throne of Sakka, king of the angels, sixty yojana long, fifty yojana wide, fifty yojana high, and the color of China Rose flowers, which, at the times of sitting down and standing up, would automatically stoop down and rise up accordingly, became warm. Sakka thought, "who, then, is desirous of my falling away from my station?" Looking with the divine eye, he saw the elder. So said the ancients:
The ruler of the angels with a thousand eyes brought to purity the divine eye:
'This Pāla, who censures the evil, has purified his livelihood.'
The ruler of the angels with a thousand eyes brought to purity the divine eye:
'This Pāla, who reveres the dhamma, sits delighted in the sasana.'
Then, it occurred to him: "if I do not go to such a good sir who censures the evil and reveres the dhamma, my head should burst into seven pieces. I will go to him." So:
The ruler of the angels with a thousand eyes, glorious in the kingdom of the angels,
came at that moment and approached Cakkhupāla.
And so, approaching, he made his footsteps heard near the elder. The elder asked, "who is this?" "Venerable sir, I am a traveller." "To where do you go, lay-follower?" "To Sāvatthī, venerable sir." "Go ahead, friend." "But, venerable sir, where is the good sir going?" "I too am going to that very place." "Then indeed let us go as one, venerable sir." "I friend, am of little strength. If you go together with me, there will arise complications for you." "I have no urgent business. Besides, in going together with the good sir, I will obtain one of the ten means of performing goodness; let us indeed go as one, venerable sir."
The elder, thinking, "this must be a true gentleman," said: "Then I will go together with you; take the end of the walking stick, lay-follower." Sakka did so and, contracting the earth, reached Jetavana by evening time. The elder, hearing the sounds of trumpets and drums, asked, "where is this sound from?" "Sāvatthi, venerable sir." "When going before, it took a longer time." "I know a shortcut, venerable sir."
At that moment, it dawned on the elder that "this is not a human. He must be an angel."
api Yet, sīlatejena by the glory of virtue therassa of the elder, paṇḍukambalasilāsanaṃ the Orange-Blanketed Stone Throne sakkassa of Sakka, devarañño king of the angels, saṭṭhiyojanāyāmaṃ sixty yojana long, paññāsayojanavitthataṃ fifty yojana wide, pannarasayojanabahalaṃ [and] fifty yojana high, jayasumanapupphavaṇṇaṃ the color of China Rose flowers, nisīdanuṭṭhahanakālesu [which] at the times of sitting down and standing up, onamanunnamanapakatikaṃ would regularly stoop down and rise up, dassesi exhibited uṇhākāraṃ a state of heat. sakko Sakka iti [thought] thus: ko "Who nu kho indeed cāvetukāmo is desirous of the falling away ṭhānā from their station maṃ towards me?" olokento Looking dibbena with the divine cakkhunā eye addasa he saw theraṃ the elder. tena In regards to that, porāṇā the ancients āhu spoke iti thus:
devindo the ruler of the angels sahassanetto with a thousand eyes, visodhayi brought to purity dibbacakkhuṃ the divine eye. ayaṃ This pālo Pāla pāpagarahī who censures the evil parisodhayi has purified ājīvaṃ [his] livelihood. ... This pālo Pāla dhammagaruko who reveres the dhamma nisinno is seated rato delighted sāsane in the sasana.
atha then assa to him etadahosi this occurred iti as follows: sace “If āhaṃ I na gamissāmi will not go santikaṃ into the presence ayyassa of a reverend evarūpassa of such a form pāpagarahino who censures the evil dhammagarukassa [and] reveres the dhamma, me my muddhā head phaleyya should burst sattadhā into seven pieces. gamissāmi I will go santikaṃ into the presence santikaṃ of him.” tato Thence:
devindo The ruler of the angels sahassanetto with a thousand eyes, devarajjasirindharo glorious in the kingdom of the angels, āgantvāna having come taṅkhaṇena at that moment cakkhupālamupāgami approached towards Cakkhupāla.
ca pana And so, upagantvā having approached, padasaddamakāsi he made a sound of foot steps avidūre in the vicinity therassa of the elder. atha Then, thero the elder pucchi asked naṃ him iti thus: ko “Who eso [is] this?” iti [Sakka replied] thus: ahaṃ “I, bhante venerable sir, addhiko [am] a traveller.” iti [The elder asked] thus: kuhiṃ “To where yāsi do you go, upāsaka lay-follower?” iti [Sakka replied] thus: sāvatthiyaṃ “To Sāvatthī, bhante venerable sir.” iti [The elder spoke] thus: yāhi “Go, āvuso friend.” iti [Sakka asked] thus: pana “But ayyo, the good sir, bhante, venerable sir, kuhiṃ to where gamissati will he go?” iti [The elder replied] thus: ahampi “I too gamissāmi will go tattheva to that very place.” iti [Sakka spoke] thus: tena hi “Then gacchāma let us go ekatova indeed as one, bhante venerable sir.” iti [The elder spoke] thus: ahaṃ I āvuso friend, dubbalo am of poor strength. gacchantassa In going saddhiṃ together mayā with me, papañco complication bhavissati will arise tava for you.” iti [Sakka spoke] thus: mayhaṃ “Of me natthi there is no accāyikaṃ urgency. api Moreover, gacchanto going saddhiṃ together ayyena with the good sir, ahaṃ I labhissāmi will obtain ekaṃ one dasasu among the ten puññakiriyavatthūsu means of performing goodness; gacchāma let us go ekatova indeed as one, bhante venerable sir.” thero The elder, cintetvā having thought iti thus: eso “This bhavissati must be sappuriso a gentleman.” āha spoke iti thus: tena hi “Then gamissāmi I will go saddhiṃ together; gaṇha take yaṭṭhikoṭiṃ the end of the walking stick, upāsaka lay-follower.” sakko Sakka katvā having done tathā so, saṅkhipanto contracting pathaviṃ the earth, sampāpesi reached jetavanaṃ Jetavana sāyanhasamaye at evening time. thero The elder, sutvā having heard saṅkhapaṇavādisaddaṃ the sounds of trumpets and drums, pucchi asked iti thus: kattheso Where [is] this saddo sound?” iti [Sakka spoke] thus: sāvatthiyaṃ, “In Sāvatthi, bhante venerable sir.”iti [The elder spoke] thus: pubbe “In former gamanakāle times going, mayaṃ we gamimhā went cirena by a long time.” iti [Sakka spoke] thus: ahaṃ I jānāmi know ujumaggaṃ a straight path, bhante venerable sir.” tasmiṃ At that khaṇe moment thero the elder sallakkhesi considered iti thus: nāyaṃ “This is not manusso a human. bhavissatī He must be devatā an angel.”
“sahassanetto devindo, devarajjasirindharo. saṅkhipitvāna taṃ maggaṃ, khippaṃ sāvatthimāgamī”ti.
so theraṃ netvā therassevatthāya kaniṭṭhakuṭumbikena kāritaṃ paṇṇasālaṃ netvā phalake nisīdāpetvā piyasahāyakavaṇṇena tassa santikaṃ gantvā, “samma, cūḷapālā”ti pakkosi. “kiṃ, sammā”ti? “therassāgatabhāvaṃ jānāsī”ti? “na jānāmi, kiṃ pana thero āgato”ti? “āma, samma, idāni ahaṃ vihāraṃ gantvā theraṃ tayā kāritapaṇṇasālāya nisinnakaṃ disvā āgatomhī”ti vatvā pakkāmi. kuṭumbikopi vihāraṃ gantvā theraṃ disvā pādamūle parivattanto roditvā “idaṃ disvā ahaṃ, bhante, tumhākaṃ pabbajituṃ nādāsin”tiādīni vatvā dve dāsadārake bhujisse katvā therassa santike pabbājetvā “antogāmato yāgubhattādīni āharitvā theraṃ upaṭṭhahathā”ti paṭiyādesi. sāmaṇerā vattapaṭivattaṃ katvā theraṃ upaṭṭhahiṃsu. athekadivasaṃ disāvāsino bhikkhū “satthāraṃ passissāmā”ti jetavanaṃ āgantvā tathāgataṃ vanditvā asītimahāthere ca, vanditvā vihāracārikaṃ carantā cakkhupālattherassa vasanaṭṭhānaṃ patvā “idampi passissāmā”ti sāyaṃ tadabhimukhā ahesuṃ. tasmiṃ khaṇe mahāmegho uṭṭhahi. te “idāni atisāyanho, megho ca uṭṭhito, pātova gantvā passissāmā”ti nivattiṃsu. devo paṭhamayāmaṃ vassitvā majjhimayāme vigato. thero āraddhavīriyo āciṇṇacaṅkamano, tasmā pacchimayāme caṅkamanaṃ otari. tadā ca pana navavuṭṭhāya bhūmiyā bahū indagopakā uṭṭhahiṃsu. te there caṅkamante yebhuyyena vipajjiṃsu. antevāsikā therassa caṅkamanaṭṭhānaṃ kālasseva na sammajjiṃsu. itare bhikkhū “therassa vasanaṭṭhānaṃ passissāmā”ti āgantvā caṅkamane matapāṇake disvā “ko imasmiṃ caṅkamatī”ti pucchiṃsu. “amhākaṃ upajjhāyo, bhante”ti. te ujjhāyiṃsu “passathāvuso, samaṇassa kammaṃ, sacakkhukakāle nipajjitvā niddāyanto kiñci akatvā idāni cakkhuvikalakāle ‘caṅkamāmī’ti ettake pāṇake māresi ‘atthaṃ karissāmī’ti anatthaṃ karotī”ti.
The ruler of the angels with a thousand eyes, glorious in the kingdom of the angels,
having shortened that path, quickly came to Sāvatthi.
He led the elder to the thatched hall made by his younger brother the householder for the elder's own benefit, had him sit on a piece of wood, then went to his younger brother the householder in the guise of a close friend and called him, "good Cūḷapāla." "What, good fellow?" "Do you know that the elder has come?" "I didn't know that. What, so the elder has come?" "Yes, good fellow. Just now I went to the residence and, seeing the elder sitting in the thatched hall made by you, have come." So saying, he left.
Then, the householder went to the residence and, seeing the elder, fell to weeping, rolling around at his feet, speaking such words as, "seeing this, venerable sir, I did not give you permission to go forth." Freeing two young servants, he had them to go forth under the elder and ordered them with the words "bring gruel, rice and so on from within the village, and attend to the elder." The novices did the duties and counter-duties and attended upon the elder.
Then, one day, foreign-dwelling monks came to Jetavana, thinking, "we will see the teacher." Having paid homage to the Tathāgata and to the eighty great elders, they wandered around the monastery until they came to the elder Cakkhupāla's place of residence. Thinking, "we should see this elder, as well," they turned towards that place. At that moment, a great cloud arose. They thought, "now, it is very late in the day, and a cloud has arisen. We will go to see him in the morning instead," and turned back. The rain-god rained in the first watch of the night and was gone by the middle watch. The elder, due to his persistant effort, was given to practising walking meditation habitually; so, in the last watch of the night, he went down to the walking place. At that time, however, many Indagopaka insects came out from the earth, newly conceived. During the elder's walking in meditation, the majority of them perished as his co-residents had not swept the elder's walking meditation place at the proper time. The other monks came, thinking, "we will see the dwelling place of the elder." Seeing the dead creatures in the walking place, they asked, "who practices walking meditation in this place?" "Our prceptor, venerable sir." They were annoyed and said, "look, friend, at the recluse's deed. Having slept without doing anything when he had eyes, he now, being without eyes, thinks, 'I will practice walking meditation,' and has caused so many creatures to die. Thinking, 'I will do what is of purpose', he does what is contrary to the purpose."
devindo The ruler of the angels sahassanetto with a thousand eyes, devarajjasirindharo glorious in the kingdom of the angels, saṅkhipitvāna having contracted taṃ that maggaṃ path khippaṃ quickly sāvatthimāgami came to Sāvatthi.
so He netvā leading theraṃ the elder netvā having led [him] paṇṇasālaṃ to the thatched hall kāritaṃ made kaniṭṭhakuṭumbikena by his younger brother the householder therassevatthāya for the benefit of the elder himself, nisīdāpetvā having caused him to sit phalake on a piece of wood, gantvā having gone santikaṃ into the presence tassa of that [younger brother the householder] piyasahāyakavaṇṇena with the appearance of a friend who was dear, pakkosi called [him] iti thus: samma “Good cūḷapāla Cūḷapāla.” iti [The younger brother replied] thus: kiṃ “What, samma good fellow?” iti [Sakka spoke] thus: jānāsi “Do you know therassāgatabhāvaṃ the fact that the elder has come?” iti [The younger brother replied] thus: na jānāmi “I didn't know. kiṃ pana What, so thero the elder āgato has come?” vatvā [Sakka] having spoken iti thus: āma “Yes, samma good fellow. idāni Now ahaṃ I gantvā having gone vihāraṃ to the residence, disvā having seen theraṃ the elder nisinnakaṃ sitting kāritapaṇṇasālāya in the thatched hall made tayā by you, āgatomhi am come.” pakkāmi left. kuṭumbikopi So, the householder, gantvā having gone vihāraṃ to the residence disvā having seen theraṃ the elder roditvā having wept parivattanto rolling around pādamūle at his feet, vatvā having spoken ādīni [words] starting iti thus: disvā “having seen idaṃ this, ahaṃ I, bhante venerable sir, nādāsiṃ did not give pabbajituṃ to go forth tumhākaṃ to you.” katvā Having made bhujisse free dve two dāsadārake young servants, pabbājetvā having caused them to go forth santike in the presence therassa of the elder, paṭiyādesi assigned them iti thus: āharitvā having brought yāgubhattādīni conjey, rice and so on antogāmato from within the village upaṭṭhahatha do you attend theraṃ to the elder.” sāmaṇerā The novices, katvā having done vattapaṭivattaṃ the duties and counter-duties upaṭṭhahiṃsu attended theraṃ upon the elder.
athekadivasaṃ Then, one day, disāvāsino foreign-dwelling bhikkhū monks, āgantvā having come jetavanaṃ to Jetavana, iti [thinking] thus: passissāma “We will see satthāraṃ the teacher.”, vanditvā having paid homage tathāgataṃ to the Tathāgata, ca and vanditvā having paid homage asītimahāthere to the eighty great elders, carantā wandering vihāracārikaṃ around the residence, patvā having reached vasanaṭṭhānaṃ the place of residence cakkhupālattherassa of the elder Cakkhupāla, iti [thinking] thus: passissāma “We will see idampi this one, too.” ahesuṃ were tadabhimukhā turned towards that [place] sāyaṃ themselves. tasmiṃ At that khaṇe moment mahāmegho a great cloud uṭṭhahi came up. te They, iti [thinking] thus: idāni “Now, atisāyanho [it is] very late in the day, ca and megho a cloud uṭṭhito has come up. gantvā having gone pātova in the morning instead, passissāma we will see.” nivattiṃsu turned back. devo The [rain-]angel vassitvā having rained paṭhamayāmaṃ in the first watch, vigato was gone majjhimayāme in the middle watch. thero The elder āraddhavīriyo with persistent effort āciṇṇacaṅkamano habitually practised walking meditation. tasmā Therefore, pacchimayāme in the last watch, otari he went down caṅkamanaṃ to the walking [place]. ca pana And yet, tadā at that time, bahū many indagopakā indagopaka [insects], navavuṭṭhāya having newly emerged, uṭṭhahiṃsu came out bhūmiyā from the earth. te They, there at the elder's caṅkamante walking in meditation, vipajjiṃsu perished yebhuyyena for the most part. antevāsikā The residents na sammajjiṃsu had not swept caṅkamanaṭṭhānaṃ the walking meditation place therassa of the elder kālasseva at the proper time. itare The other bhikkhū monks, iti [thinking] thus: passissāma “We will see vasanaṭṭhānaṃ the dwelling place therassa of the elder.” āgantvā having come, disvā having seen matapāṇake the dead creatures caṅkamane in the walking [place], pucchiṃsu asked iti thus: ko “Who caṅkamati practices walking meditation imasmiṃ in this [place]?” iti [The residents spoke] thus: amhākaṃ “Our upajjhāyo preceptor, bhante venerable sir.” te They ujjhāyiṃsu were annoyed iti thus: passathāvuso “Look, friend, samaṇassa at the recluse's kammaṃ deed. nipajjitvā Having slept sacakkhukakāle in the time when he was with eyes, niddāyanto sleeping akatvā having not done kiñci anything, idāni now cakkhuvikalakāle in the time when he is without eyes, iti [thinking] thus: caṅkamāmi 'I will practice walking meditation.' ettake pāṇake māresi has caused so many creatures to die. Iti [Thinking] thus: karissāmi 'I will do atthaṃ what is of purpose', karoti he does anatthaṃ what is against the purpose.”
atha kho te gantvā tathāgatassa ārocesuṃ, “bhante, cakkhupālatthero ‘caṅkamāmī’ti bahū pāṇake māresī”ti. “kiṃ pana so tumhehi mārento diṭṭho”ti? “na diṭṭho, bhante”ti. “yatheva tumhe taṃ na passatha, tatheva sopi te pāṇe na passati. khīṇāsavānaṃ maraṇacetanā nāma natthi, bhikkhave”ti. “bhante, arahattassa upanissaye sati kasmā andho jāto”ti? “attano katakammavasena, bhikkhave”ti. “kiṃ pana, bhante, tena katan”ti? tena hi, bhikkhave, suṇātha —
atīte bārāṇasiyaṃ kāsiraññe rajjaṃ kārente eko vejjo gāmanigamesu caritvā vejjakammaṃ karonto ekaṃ cakkhudubbalaṃ itthiṃ disvā pucchi — “kiṃ te aphāsukan”ti? “akkhīhi na passāmī”ti. “bhesajjaṃ te karissāmī”ti? “karohi, sāmī”ti. “kiṃ me dassasī”ti? “sace me akkhīni pākatikāni kātuṃ sakkhissasi, ahaṃ te saddhiṃ puttadhītāhi dāsī bhavissāmī”ti. so “sādhū”ti bhesajjaṃ saṃvidahi, ekabhesajjeneva akkhīni pākatikāni ahesuṃ. sā cintesi — “ahametassa saputtadhītā dāsī bhavissāmī”ti paṭijāniṃ, “na kho pana maṃ saṇhena sammācārena samudācarissati, vañcessāmi nan”ti. sā vejjenāgantvā “kīdisaṃ, bhadde”ti puṭṭhā “pubbe me akkhīni thokaṃ rujjiṃsu, idāni pana atirekataraṃ rujjantī”ti āha. vejjo “ayaṃ maṃ vañcetvā kiñci adātukāmā, na me etāya dinnāya bhatiyā attho, idāneva naṃ andhaṃ karissāmī”ti cintetvā gehaṃ gantvā bhariyāya etamatthaṃ ācikkhi. sā tuṇhī ahosi. so ekaṃ bhesajjaṃ yojetvā tassā santikaṃ gantvā “bhadde, imaṃ bhesajjaṃ añjehī”ti añjāpesi. athassā dve akkhīni dīpasikhā viya vijjhāyiṃsu. so vejjo cakkhupālo ahosi. bhikkhave, tadā mama puttena katakammaṃ pacchato pacchato anubandhi. pāpakammañhi nāmetaṃ dhuraṃ vahato balibaddassa padaṃ cakkaṃ viya anugacchatīti idaṃ vatthuṃ kathetvā anusandhiṃ ghaṭetvā patiṭṭhāpitamattikaṃ sāsanaṃ rājamuddāya lañchanto viya dhammarājā imaṃ gāthamāha —
1. “manopubbaṅgamā dhammā, manoseṭṭhā manomayā. manasā ce paduṭṭhena, bhāsati vā karoti vā. tato naṃ dukkhamanveti, cakkaṃva vahato padan”ti.
So they went and spoke to the Tathāgata, saying, "venerable sir, the elder Cakkhupāla, thinking 'I will do walking meditation,' causes the death of many creatures." "What, but did you see him cause their death?" "We did not see him do so, venerable sir." "Indeed, just as you didn't see that act, so too he did not see those creatures. Truly, the intention to kill does not exist in those who have destroyed the taints, monks." "Venerable sir, while he had the precondition for arahantship, from what could his blindness arise?" "From the power of deeds done by himself, monks." "But what, venerable sir, did he do?" "Well then, monks, listen."
In the past, in Baranasi, while King Kāsi reigned in sovereignty, a certain doctor, wandering in villages and towns and performing the work of a doctor, saw a woman with weak eyes and asked, "what is your ailment?" "My eyes cannot see." "Shall I make medicine for you?" "Please do, master!" "What will you give me to me?" "If you are able to make me my eyes normal, I, together with my sons and daughters, will become your slave." He said, "very well," and prepared some medicine. And lo, with a single application of the medicine her eyes became normal. She thought to herself, "I promised I will become the slave of this doctor together with my sons and daughters. But he will surely not behave towards me with tender and caring conduct. I will lie to him." So, when she came to the doctor and he asked, "in what condition are your eyes, good woman?" she said, "previously, me my eyes hurt a little, but now they hurt much more." The doctor thought to himself, "this woman is lying to me because she does not want to give me anything. I will not succeed in having this women give me my payment; now, I will make her truly blind!" He went to his home and related the matter to his wife. She was silent. He mixed a medicine and, going to the woman, had her apply it, saying, "good woman, apply this medicine." As a result, her two eyes were extinguished like the flames of a lamp.
That doctor was Cakkhupāla. Monks, the deed done by my son at that time followed right behind him. Indeed, this very thing called evil kamma goes after one like a wheel the foot of an ox bearing a yoke. Having explained this matter and made the connection, the King of Dhamma, as though stamping the royal seal on a letter affixed with clay, spoke this verse:
1. Dhammas have mind as forerunner, have mind as chief, are formed of mind.
If, with a mind corrupted, one speaks or acts,
because of that, suffering follows one,
just as a wheel the foot of the ox pulling the cart.
atha kho So then, te they gantvā having gone ārocesuṃ spoke tathāgatassa to the Tathāgata iti thus: bhante “Venerable sir, cakkhupālatthero the elder Cakkhupāla, iti [thinking] thus: caṅkamāmi 'I will do walking meditation' māresi causes the death of bahū many pāṇake creatures.” iti [The Tathāgata asked] thus: kiṃ “What, pana but so [was] he diṭṭho seen tumhehi by you mārento causing death?” iti [The monks replied] thus: na “[He was] not diṭṭho seen, bhante venerable sir.” iti [The Tathāgata spoke] thus: yatheva “Indeed, just as tumhe you all na didn't passatha see taṃ that, tatheva just so, sopi he too na did not passati see te those pāṇe creatures. maraṇacetanā The intention of killing nāma truly natthi does not exist khīṇāsavānaṃ of those who have destroyed the taints, bhikkhave monks.” iti [The monks asked] thus: bhante “Venerable sir, upanissaye while the precondition arahattassa for arahantship sati existed, kasmā from what andho [could] blindness jāto arise?” iti [The Tathāgata replied] thus: katakammavasena “By the power of deeds done attano by himself, bhikkhave monks.” iti [The monks asked] thus: pana “But kiṃ what, bhante venerable sir, kataṃ was done tena by him?” iti [The Tathāgata replied] thus: tena hi “Well, in that case, bhikkhave monks, suṇātha listen:
atīte in the past bārāṇasiyaṃ in Baranasi kāsiraññe while King Kāsi kārente was ruling rajjaṃ the kingdom, eko one vejjo doctor caritvā having wandered gāmanigamesu in villages and towns karonto performing vejjakammaṃ the work of a doctor, disvā having seen ekaṃ one itthiṃ woman cakkhudubbalaṃ with eyes of poor strength pucchi asked iti thus: kiṃ “What te [is] your aphāsukaṃ ailment?” iti [The woman replied] thus: na passāmi “I cannot not see akkhīhi with my eyes.” iti [The doctor asked] thus: karissāmi “Shall I make bhesajjaṃ medicine te for you?” iti [The woman replied] thus: karohi “Please make [medicine] sāmi master!” iti [The doctor asked] thus: kiṃ “What dassasi will you give me to me?” iti [The woman replied] thus: sace “If sakkhissasi you are able kātuṃ to make me my akkhīni eyes pākatikāni normal, ahaṃ I, saddhiṃ together puttadhītāhi with my sons and daughters, bhavissāmi will become te your dāsī slave.” so He iti [having spoken] thus: sādhū “Very well.” saṃvidahi prepared bhesajjaṃ medicine. ekabhesajjeneva Indeed, by a single [application] of the medicine, akkhīni [her] eyes ahesuṃ became pākatikāni normal. sā She cintesi thought iti thus: ahaṃ “I paṭijāniṃ promised iti thus: bhavissāmi 'I will become dāsī the slave etassa of this [doctor] saputtadhītā together with my sons and daughters'. pana But na kho samudācarissati he will surely not behave towards maṃ me saṇhena with tender sammācārena [and] proper conduct. vañcessāmi I will lie naṃ to him.” sā She, āgantvā having come, puṭṭhā asked vejjena by the doctor iti thus: kīdisaṃ “Of what condition [are your eyes], bhadde good woman?” āha spoke iti thus: pubbe “Previously, me my akkhīni eyes rujjiṃsu hurt thokaṃ a little. pana But idāni now, rujjanti they hurt atirekataraṃ much more.” vejjo The doctor cintetvā having thought iti thus: ayaṃ “This [woman] vañcetvā having lied maṃ to me adātukāmā does not desire to give kiñci anything. na [There will be] no attho success bhatiyā in regards to wages dinnāya being given me to me etāya by this one; idāni now karissāmi I will make naṃ her eva truly andhaṃ blind.” gantvā having gone gehaṃ to his home, ācikkhi related etamatthaṃ the matter bhariyāya to his wife. sā she ahosi was tuṇhī silent. so he yojetvā having combined ekaṃ one bhesajjaṃ medicine, gantvā having gone tassā to her santikaṃ presence añjāpesi caused her to apply [it] iti [speaking] thus: bhadde “Good woman, añjehi apply imaṃ this bhesajjaṃ medicine.” atha Then, assā her dve two akkhīni eyes vijjhāyiṃsu were extinguished viya like dīpasikhā the flames of a lamp. so That vejjo doctor ahosi was cakkhupālo Cakkhupāla. bhikkhave Monks, katakammaṃ the deed done mama puttena by my son tadā at that time anubandhi trailed pacchato pacchato just after [him]. hi Indeed, nāmetaṃ this very pāpakammaṃ evil kamma anugacchati goes after [one] viya like cakkaṃ a wheel padaṃ the foot balibaddassa of an ox vahato bearing dhuraṃ a yoke.
kathetvā Having explained idaṃ this vatthuṃ matter, ghaṭetvā having connected anusandhiṃ the connection, viya as though lañchanto stamping rājamuddāya the royal seal sāsanaṃ on a letter patiṭṭhāpitamattikaṃ affixed with clay, dhammarājā the king of the dhamma āha spoke imaṃ this gāthaṃ verse:
dhammā Realities manopubbaṅgamā have mind as forerunner, manoseṭṭhā have mind as chief, manomayā are formed of mind. ce If, manasā with a mind paduṭṭhena corrupted, bhāsati [one] speaks vā or karoti acts, tato Because of that, dukkhaṃ anveti suffering goes after naṃ him, va just as cakkaṃ a wheel padaṃ the foot vahato of the one pulling the burden.
tattha manoti kāmāvacarakusalādibhedaṃ sabbampi catubhūmikacittaṃ. imasmiṃ pana pade tadā tassa vejjassa uppannacittavasena niyamiyamānaṃ vavatthāpiyamānaṃ paricchijjiyamānaṃ domanassasahagataṃ paṭighasampayuttacittameva labbhati. pubbaṅgamāti tena paṭhamagāminā hutvā samannāgatā. dhammāti guṇadesanāpariyattinissattanijjīvavasena cattāro dhammā nāma. tesu “na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipākino. adhammo nirayaṃ neti, dhammo pāpeti suggatin”ti. (theragā. 304; jā. 1.15.386) ayaṃ guṇadhammo nāma. “dhammaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi ādikalyāṇan”ti (ma. ni. 3.420) ayaṃ desanādhammo nāma. “idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacce kulaputtā dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇanti suttaṃ geyyan”ti (ma. ni. 1.239) ayaṃ pariyattidhammo nāma. “tasmiṃ kho pana samaye dhammā honti, khandhā hontī”ti (dha. sa. 121) ayaṃ nissattadhammo nāma, nijjīvadhammotipi eso eva. tesu imasmiṃ ṭhāne nissattanijjīvadhammo adhippeto. so atthato tayo arūpino khandhā vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho saṅkhārakkhandhoti. ete hi mano pubbaṅgamo etesanti manopubbaṅgamā nāma.
kathaṃ panetehi saddhiṃ ekavatthuko ekārammaṇo apubbaṃ acarimaṃ ekakkhaṇe uppajjamāno mano pubbaṅgamo nāma hotīti? uppādapaccayaṭṭhena. yathā hi bahūsu ekato gāmaghātādīni kammāni karontesu “ko etesaṃ pubbaṅgamo”ti vutte yo nesaṃ paccayo hoti, yaṃ nissāya te taṃ kammaṃ karonti, so datto vā mitto vā tesaṃ pubbaṅgamoti vuccati, evaṃsampadamidaṃ veditabbaṃ. iti uppādapaccayaṭṭhena mano pubbaṅgamo etesanti manopubbaṅgamā. na hi te mane anuppajjante uppajjituṃ sakkonti, mano pana ekaccesu cetasikesu anupajjantesupi uppajjatiyeva. adhipativasena pana mano seṭṭho etesanti manoseṭṭho. yathā hi corādīnaṃ corajeṭṭhakādayo adhipatino seṭṭhā. tathā tesampi mano adhipati manova seṭṭhā. yathā pana dāruādīhi nipphannāni tāni tāni bhaṇḍāni dārumayādīni nāma honti, tathā tepi manato nipphannattā manomayā nāma.
Therein, each and every mind of the four realms, categorized as sensual-sphere wholesome, etc. is called "mind". But, in this verse, only a mind associated with aversion and accompanied by displeasure is meant, fixed, determined and defined by the power of the doctor's arisen mind. In reference to "having as forerunner", the meaning is that, becoming because of it going first, they are associated with it. In reference to "dhammas", there are actually four types of dhamma, under the headings of virtue, dissemination, study, and non-being/non-soul. In regards to these: 1) In the passage "dhamma and non-dhamma - both do not indeed have the same result. Non-dhamma leads one to hell, dhamma brings one to a happy destination," this is called "dhamma as virtue". 2) In the passage "I will teach the dhamma to you monks, beautiful in the beginning..." this is called "dhamma as dissemination". 3) In the passage "so here, monks, some young men of a good families bring the dhamma to complete fulfilment: the sutta the geyya..." this is called "dhamma as study". 4) In the passage "but indeed, at that time dhammas exist, aggregates exist." this is called "non-living-being dhamma". This is also called "non-soul dhamma". Of these, non-being/non-soul dhamma is intended in this instance. Its meaning is the three formless aggregates - the aggregate of sensation the aggregate of perception and the aggregate of mental formation. Because these are spoken of thus: "mind is the forerunner of them", they are therefore called "that which has mind as forerunner". But why is mind, arising in a single instant together with these, with a single base, with a single object, arising neither before nor after, called "forerunner"? By the meaning of being condition for their arising. Just as, when many villains are doing evil deeds together, such as pillaging, etc., if it is asked, "who is the forerunner of these villains?", whoever is their instigator, having depended on whom they do that deed, he, whether his name be Datta or Mitta, is called their "forerunner". Thus should the completion of this matter be understood. Since, by the meaning of being condition for their arising, mind is their forerunner, so they have mind as forerunner - whereas they are not able to arise if mind does not arise, mind does indeed arise with some mental concomitants not arising. Next, by virtue of being ruler over, mind is foremost in regards to them, so they "have mind as chief". For, just as senior villains, etc., are chiefs of villains, etc., by ruling over them, so, as the mind is ruler over those mental concomitants, they indeed have mind as chief. Next, just as whatever is fashioned with wood, etc., all of those wares are called "wood-made", etc., so, as those mental concomitants are themselves fashioned from the mind, they are called "formed of mind".
tattha Therein, sabbampi each and every catubhūmikacittaṃ mind of the four realms, kāmāvacarakusalādibhedaṃ categorized as sensual-sphere wholesome, etc. iti is called mano “mind”. pana So, imasmiṃ in this pade phrase, tadā then, niyamiyamānaṃ being fixed, vavatthāpiyamānaṃ being determined paricchijjiyamānaṃ [and] being defined uppannacittavasena by the power of the arisen mind tassa of that vejjassa doctor, paṭighasampayuttacittameva just a mind associated with aversion and domanassasahagataṃ accompanied by displeasure labbhati was obtained. iti In reference to pubbaṅgamā “having as forerunner”, hutvā having become tena because of that paṭhamagāminā going first, samannāgatā [they] are associated [with it].
Iti in reference to dhammā “realities”, nāma [there are] actually cattāro four dhammā realities, guṇadesanāpariyattinissattanijjīvavasena under the headings of virtue, dissemination, study, and non-being/non-soul. tesu In regards to these, iti as in dhammo “dhamma ca and adhammo non-dhamma na hi do not indeed ubho both samavipākino have the same result. adhammo Non-dhamma neti leads to nirayaṃ hell, dhammo dhamma pāpeti causes to reach suggatiṃ a happy destination.” (Thāg. 304; Jā. 1.15.386) ayaṃ this nāma is called guṇadhammo dhamma as virtue. iti As in desessāmi “I will disseminate dhammaṃ the dhamma vo to you bhikkhave monks, ādikalyāṇaṃ beautiful in the beginning...” (M 3.420) ayaṃ this nāma is called desanādhammo dhamma as dissemination. iti as in pana “So idha here, bhikkhave monks, ekacce some kulaputtā young men of a good families dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇanti bring the dhamma to complete fulfilment: suttaṃ the sutta geyyanti the geyya...” (M 1.239) ayaṃ This nāma is called pariyatti dhammo “dhamma as study”. kho pana “But indeed, tasmiṃ at that samaye time dhammā dhammas honti exist, khandhā aggregates honti exist.” (Dhs. 121) ayaṃ This nāma is called nissattadhammo “non-being dhamma”. eso This eva indeed [is] also iti [called] thus: nijjīvadhammo “non-soul dhamma”. tesu In regards to those, imasmiṃ in this ṭhāne instance nissattanijjīvadhammo non-being/non-soul dhamma adhippeto is intended. so That atthato by meaning tayo [is] the three arūpino formless khandhā aggregates, iti as follows: vedanākkhandho the aggregate of sensation saññākkhandho the aggregate of perception saṅkhārakkhandhoti [and] the aggregate of mental formation, hi because, ete these iti [are spoken of] as follows: mano “mind pubbaṅgamo [is] the forerunner etesaṃ of them”, nāma they are called manopubbaṅgamā that which has mind as forerunner.
pana But kathaṃ why hoti is mano mind, uppajjamāno arising ekakkhaṇe in a single instant saddhiṃ together etehi with these, ekavatthuko of a single base, ekārammaṇo with a single object apubbaṃ not before, acarimaṃ not after, nāma called iti thus: pubbaṅgamo “forerunner”? uppādapaccayaṭṭhena By the meaning of condition for arising. yathā hi Just as bahūsu when many [villains] karontesu are doing kammāni [evil] deeds ekato together gāmaghātādīni beginning with pillaging, etc., vutte when it is asked iti thus: ko “Who pubbaṅgamo [is] the forerunner etesaṃ of these [villains]?” yo whoever hoti is paccayo the condition nesaṃ for them, nissāya having depended yaṃ on whom te they karonti do taṃ that kammaṃ deed, so he vā whether datto Datta vā or mitto Mitta, vuccati is called iti thus: pubbaṅgamo “the forerunner” tesaṃ of them. evaṃ thus sampadamidaṃ the completion of this [subject] veditabbaṃ should be understood. iti Therefore, uppādapaccayaṭṭhena by the meaning of condition for arising, mano mind pubbaṅgamo is the forerunner etesanti of them, so manopubbaṅgamā [they] have mind as forerunner. hi Whereas te they na sakkonti are not able uppajjituṃ to arise mane with mind anuppajjante not arising, mano mind, pana however, uppajjatiyeva does indeed arise ekaccesu with some cetasikesu mental concomitants anupajjantesupi not arising. pana Further, adhipativasena by virtue of being ruler over, mano mind seṭṭho is foremost etesaṃ in regards to them, iti so manoseṭṭho [they] have mind as chief. hi For, yathā just as corajeṭṭhakādayo senior villains and so on seṭṭhā are chiefs corādīnaṃ of villains and so on adhipatino by ruling over [them], tathā so, api as mano the mind adhipati [is] ruler tesaṃ of those [mental concomitants] manova seṭṭhā [they] indeed have mind as chief. pana Further, yathā just as nipphannāni [whatever is] fashioned dāruādīhi with wood, etc., tāni tāni all of those bhaṇḍāni wares honti are nāma called dārumayādīni made of wood, etc., tathā so api as te those [mental concomitants] nipphannattā are themselves fashioned manato from the mind, nāma [they are] called manomayā mind-made.
paduṭṭhenāti āgantukehi abhijjhādīhi dosehi paduṭṭhena. pakatimano hi bhavaṅgacittaṃ, taṃ apaduṭṭhaṃ. yathā hi pasannaṃ udakaṃ āgantukehi nīlādīhi upakkiliṭṭhaṃ nīlodakādibhedaṃ hoti, na ca navaṃ udakaṃ, nāpi purimaṃ pasannaudakameva, tathā tampi āgantukehi abhijjhādīhi dosehi paduṭṭhaṃ hoti, na ca navaṃ cittaṃ, nāpi purimaṃ bhavaṅgacittameva, tenāha bhagavā — “pabhassaramidaṃ, bhikkhave, cittaṃ, tañca kho āgantukehi upakkilesehi upakkiliṭṭhan”ti (a. ni. 1.49). evaṃ manasā ce paduṭṭhena, bhāsati vā karoti vā so bhāsamāno catubbidhaṃ vacīduccaritameva bhāsati, karonto tividhaṃ kāyaduccaritameva karoti, abhāsanto akaronto tāya abhijjhādīhi paduṭṭhamānasatāya tividhaṃ manoduccaritaṃ pūreti. evamassa dasa akusalakammapathā pāripūriṃ gacchanti.
tato naṃ dukkhamanvetīti tato tividhaduccaritato taṃ puggalaṃ dukkhaṃ anveti, duccaritānubhāvena catūsu apāyesu, manussesu vā tamattabhāvaṃ gacchantaṃ kāyavatthukampi itarampīti iminā pariyāyena kāyikacetasikaṃ vipākadukkhaṃ anugacchati. yathā kiṃ? cakkaṃva vahato padanti dhure yuttassa dhuraṃ vahato balibaddassa padaṃ cakkaṃ viya. yathā hi so ekampi divasaṃ dvepi pañcapi dasapi aḍḍhamāsampi māsampi vahanto cakkaṃ nivattetuṃ jahituṃ na sakkoti, atha khvassa purato abhikkamantassa yugaṃ gīvaṃ bādhati, pacchato paṭikkamantassa cakkaṃ ūrumaṃsaṃ paṭihanati. imehi dvīhi ākārehi bādhantaṃ cakkaṃ tassa padānupadikaṃ hoti; tatheva manasā paduṭṭhena tīṇi duccaritāni pūretvā ṭhitaṃ puggalaṃ nirayādīsu tattha tattha gatagataṭṭhāne duccaritamūlakaṃ kāyikampi cetasikampi dukkhamanubandhatīti.
gāthāpariyosāne tiṃsasahassā bhikkhū saha paṭisambhidāhi arahattaṃ pāpuṇiṃsu. sampattaparibhāyapi desanā sātthikā saphalā ahosīti.
In reference to "with a mind corrupted", the meaning is "with a mind corrupted by impinging faults beginning with covetousness". For the bhavaṅgacitta is a simple mind that is uncorrupted but, just as clear water tainted by impinging blue colour, etc. is thus categorized as blue water, etc., and not new water, nor the former same clear water, even so is that mind corrupted by impinging faults beginning with covetousness, and not a new mind, nor indeed the former same bhavaṅgacitta. Thus the Blessed One said, "radiant, monks, is this mind; yet it is defiled by impinging defilements (AN 1.49)."
Then, "if with a mind corrupted one speaks or acts" - speaking, he speaks only with fourfold verbal misconduct; acting, he performs only with threefold bodily misconduct; neither speaking nor acting, while that mind corrupted with covetousness, etc. persists, he fulfils the threefold mental misconduct. Thus he fulfils the ten means of unwholesome action.
In regards to, "because of that, suffering follows one," the meaning is: because of that threefold misconduct, suffering goes after that individual. By the power of misconduct, in the four states of loss or in the realm of humans, as bodily-formations or otherwise (i.e. mental), by this explanation bodily and mental suffering as a result follow after that state of being.
Just like what? "Just as a wheel the foot of the ox pulling the cart." In regards to this, the meaning is: like a wheel towards the foot of the ox harnessed in the yoke, pulling the yoke. For, just as that ox, pulling even for one day, even for two, five, ten days, even for half-a-month, even for a month, is not able to leave behind or abandon the wheel. Indeed, when he advances to the front, the yoke presses on his neck; when he retreats back, the wheel strikes against the flesh of his legs. Oppressing in these two ways, the wheel is in-step with the foot of that ox. Just so, with a mind defiled, having fulfilled the three types of misconduct, an individual is set in hell, etc. Gone to such and such a place, both bodily and mental suffering rooted in misconduct follow after him.
This is the meaning of the verse. At the conclusion of the verse, thirty-thousand monks attained to arahantship together with the paṭisambhidā; Even for the rest of the audience present, the discourse was of purpose and of benefit. Thus ends the first story, the story of the elder Cakkhupāla.
iti In reference to paduṭṭhena “with [a mind] corrupted”, paduṭṭhena with [a mind] corrupted āgantukehi by incoming dosehi faults abhijjhādīhi beginning with covetousness. hi For bhavaṅgacittaṃ the bhavaṅgacitta pakatimano [is] an ordinary mind; taṃ that apaduṭṭhaṃ [is] uncorrupted. hi But yathā just as pasannaṃ clear udakaṃ water upakkiliṭṭhaṃ tainted āgantukehi by incoming nīlādīhi blue [colour], etc., hoti is iti thus nīlodakādibhedaṃ categorized as blue water, etc., ca and na not navaṃ new udakaṃ water, nāpi nor either purimaṃ the former pasannaudakameva same clear water, tathā so tampi even that [mind] hoti is paduṭṭhaṃ corrupted āgantukehi by incoming dosehi faults abhijjhādīhi beginning with covetousness, ca and na not navaṃ a new cittaṃ mind, nāpi nor indeed purimaṃ the former bhavaṅgacittameva same bhavaṅgacitta. Tena Because of that, bhagavā the Blessed One āha spoke iti thus: pabhassaraṃ “Radiant, bhikkhave monks, idaṃ [is] this cittaṃ mind; ca kho yet indeed, taṃ it upakkiliṭṭhaṃ is defiled āgantukehi by incoming upakkilesehi defilements (AN 1.49).” evaṃ Thus ce if manasā with a mind paduṭṭhena corrupted bhāsati [a man] speaks vā or karoti acts, so he bhāsamāno speaking, bhāsati speaks eva just catubbidhaṃ the fourfold vacīduccaritaṃ verbal misconduct; karonto acting, karoti performs eva just tividhaṃ the threefold kāyaduccaritaṃ bodily misconduct. abhāsanto Not speaking, akaronto not acting, tāya paduṭṭhamānasatāya when there is that mind corrupted abhijjhādīhi with covetousness, etc., pūreti he fulfils tividhaṃ the threefold manoduccaritaṃ mental misconduct. evaṃ Thus, assa for him, dasa the ten akusalakammapathā means of unwholesome action gacchanti go pāripūriṃ to fulfilment. iti In regards to, tato “because of that, dukkhaṃ anveti suffering goes after naṃ him”, tato because of that tividhaduccaritato threefold misconduct, dukkhaṃ suffering anveti goes after taṃ that puggalaṃ individual; duccaritānubhāvena by the power of misconduct, catūsu in the four apāyesu [states of] loss vā or manussesu in the [realm of] humans, gacchantaṃ going api both kāyavatthukaṃ as a body-entity itarampīti [and] otherwise, iti thus iminā according to this pariyāyena explanation kāyikacetasikaṃ bodily and mental vipākadukkhaṃ suffering as a result anugacchati follows tamattabhāvaṃ that state of being.
yathā Just like kiṃ what? Iti In regards to va “just as cakkaṃ a wheel padaṃ the foot vahato of the one pulling the burden.” viya like cakkaṃ a wheel padaṃ the foot balibaddassa of the ox yuttassa harnessed dhure within the yoke, vahato pulling dhuraṃ the yoke. hi For, yathā just as so that [ox] vahanto pulling ekampi even for one divasaṃ day, dvepi even for two, pañcapi even for five, dasapi even for ten, aḍḍhamāsampi even for half-a-month, māsampi even for a month, na is not sakkoti able nivattetuṃ to leave behind, jahituṃ to abandon cakkaṃ the wheel; atha then kho indeed, assa while he abhikkamantassa [is] advancing purato to the front, yugaṃ the yoke bādhati presses gīvaṃ on [his] neck, paṭikkamantassa when retreating pacchato to the back cakkaṃ the wheel paṭihanati strikes against ūrumaṃsaṃ the flesh of [his] legs. bādhantaṃ Oppressing imehi by these dvīhi two ākārehi means, cakkaṃ the wheel hoti is padānupadikaṃ in-step with the feet tassa of that [ox], tatheva just so, manasā with a mind paduṭṭhena defiled, pūretvā having fulfilled tīṇi the three duccaritāni [types of] misconduct puggalaṃ an individual ṭhitaṃ is stood nirayādīsu in hell, etc.. tattha tattha In such and such gatagataṭṭhāne gone-to places, kāyikampi both bodily cetasikampi and mental dukkham suffering duccaritamūlakaṃ rooted in misconduct anubandhati follows after [him]. iti [The meaning is] thus.
gāthāpariyosāne At the conclusion of the verse, tiṃsasahassā thirty-thousand bhikkhū monks pāpuṇiṃsu attained to arahattaṃ arahantship saha together paṭisambhidāhi with the paṭisambhidā; api Even sampattaparisāya for the audience present, desanā the discourse ahosi was sātthikā with purpose saphalā with benefit. iti Thus [ends] cakkhupālattheravatthu the story of the elder Cakkhupāla, paṭhamaṃ the first [story].