Chapter 1




            The doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppāda or Dependent Origination is very important in Buddhism. The bodhisatta began with dependent origination when he reflected deeply on the nature of existence and attained Enlightenment. He first pondered old age and death, as did every other bodhisatta when he was about to become the Buddha in his last existence. For it was only after seeing the old, the sick and the dead that the bodhisatta saw the ascetic (samaṇa) and renounced the world in search of the ageless and the deathless Dhamma. He had seen the evils of life in old age, sickness and death.

            Every living being wants to avoid these evils of life but there is no end to these evils which follow him in one existence after another. In view of this endless process of life all living beings appear to be in bondage and subject to suffering. Life is in fact an infinite process of births and deaths. The fate of fowls and ducks is terrible indeed. Some are eaten up while still in the eggs. If they emerge from the eggs they do not live long but are killed when they grow up a little. They are born only to be killed for human consumption. If the fate of a living being is thus to be repeatedly killed it is gloomy and frightful indeed.

            But the fowls and ducks appear to be well content with their lot in life. They apparently enjoy life, quacking, crowing, eating and fighting with one another. They may think that they have a lot of time to live although in fact they have little time to be happy, their life being a matter of days or months, with each of them coming into existence and then dying after a short time.

            The span of human life, too, is not very long. For the man in his fifties or sixties the past seems in retrospect as recent as yesterday. Sixty or seventy years on earth is a day in the life of a deva which is, however, very short in the eyes of a Brahmā who may live as long as the duration of the worlds (kappa). But even the Brahmā who outlives hundreds of worlds is insignificant and his life is short in the context of samsāric eternity. Devas and Brahmās, too, have to age and die eventually. Although they are not subject to sickness and marked dotage, age tells on them invisibly in due course of time. So every living being has to face old age and death and nobody can escape from these evils of life.


            Reflecting on the origin of old age, the bodhisatta traced back the chain of dependent origination from the end to the beginning. Old age and death have their origin in rebirth which in turn is due to kammabhava (condition or kamma for renewed existence.) kammabhava stems from grasping or attachment (upādāna) which is caused by craving (taṇhā) Craving arises from feeling (vedanā) which is produced by sense-bases (āyatana) such as eye, visual form, etc. Sense-bases are the product of nāma-rūpa (consciousness and corporeality) which results from viññāṇa (consciousness) which is again caused by nāmarūpa.

            The full Pāḷi texts about Paṭiccasamuppāda attribute viññāṇa to saṅkhāra (kamma-formations) and saṅkhāra to avijjā (ignorance). But the bodhisatta's reflection is confined to the interdependence of nāmarūpa and viññāṇa in the present life. In other words, he reflected on the correlation between viññāṇa and nāmarūpa, leaving out of account the former's relation to past existence. We may assume therefore that for the yogīs reflection on the present life will suffice to ensure the successful practice of vipassanā.


            The bodhisatta reasoned about the correlation between viññāṇa and nāmarūpa thus: "This viññāṇa has no cause other than nāmarūpa. From nāmarūpa there results viññāṇas; from viññāṇa there arises nāmarūpa. Hence from the correlation between viññāṇa and nāmarūpa there arise birth, old age and death; there may be successive births or successive deaths."

            Moreover viññāṇa causes nāmarūpa: nāmarūpa causes sense-bases (āyatana). From sense-bases there arises contact; contact leads to feeling, feeling gives rise to craving, craving to grasping, and grasping results in rebirth which in turn leads to old age, death, anxiety, grief and other kinds of mental and physical suffering.

            Then the bodhisatta reflected on dependent origination negatively. If there were no viññāṇa there could be no nāmarūpa; if no nāmarūpa, then no āyatana and so on. The negation of the first link in the chain of causation leads to the extinction of suffering that has be set us ceaselessly in the infinite series of samsāric existences. After this reflection on dependent origination in its positive and negative aspects, the bodhisatta contemplated the nature of the aggregates of grasping. Then he attained the successive insights and fruitions (maggaphala) on the Ariyan holy path and finally became the all-Enlightened Buddha. Every bodhisatta attained supreme Enlightenment after such contemplation. They did not learn what and how to contemplate from others but owing to cumulative potential (pāramī) that they had acquired through innumerable lifetimes, they contemplated as mentioned before and attained Enlightenment.


            Then when it was time to preach the Buddha thought thus: This dhamma which I know is very profound. It is hard to understand; it is so sublime and so conducive to inner peace. It is not accessible to intellect and logic (atakkavacaro). It is subtle and it is to be realized only by the wise.

            All over the world philosophers have racked their brains about freedom from old age, sickness and death. But freedom from these evils means Nibbāna and Nibbāna is beyond the reach of reason and intellect. It is to be realized only through the practice of the middle way and vipassanā. Most philosophers rely on intellect and logic and there are various doctrines which they have conceived for the welfare of all living beings. But these doctrines are based on speculations that do not help anyone to attain vipassanā insight, let alone the supreme goal of Nibbāna. Even the lowest stage of vipassanā insight, viz., insight into the distinction between nāma and rūpa does not admit of intellectual approach. The insight dawns on the yogī only when, with the development of concentration, and in accordance with Satipaṭṭhāna method he watches the nāmarūpa process and distinguished between consciousness and corporeality, e.g. the desire to bend the hand and bent hand, the ear and the sound on the one hand and the consciousness of hearing on the other and so forth. Such knowledge is not vague and speculative; it is vivid and empirical.

            It is said on the authority of scriptures that nāmarūpas are in a constant flux and that we should watch their arising and passing away. But for the beginner this is easier said then done. The beginner has to exert strenuous effort to overcome hindrances (nivaraṇa). Even freedom from nivaraṇa helps him only to distinguish between nāma and rūpa. It does not ensure insight into their arising and passing away. This insight is attained only after concentration has been developed and perception has become keen with the practice of mindfulness. Constant mindfulness of arising and vanishing leads to insight into anicca, dukkha and anatta of all phenomena. But as merely the beginning of lower vipassanā, this insight is a far cry from the path and its fruition. Hence the description of the dhamma as something beyond logic and speculation.


            The dhamma is subtle (nipuṇo); it is to be realized only by the wise (paṇḍitavedaniyo). Here the wise means only those who have wisdom (paññā) relating to vipassanā and the path and its goal. The dhamma has nothing to do with the secular knowledge per se possessed by world philosophers, religious founders, writers or great scientists who can split atoms. But it can be realized by any one irrespective of sex, age or education, anyone who contemplates nāmarūpa at the moment of their arising, passes through vipassanā insights progressively and attains the Ariyan path and its goal.

            Taking stock of the nature of all living beings, the Buddha found that most of them were mired in sensual pleasure. There were of course a few exceptions like the five companions of Siddhattha in the forest retreat or the two brahmins who were later to become the two chief disciples of the Buddha. But the majority of mankind regard the enjoyment of pleasure as the summum bonum of life. They are like children who delight in playing with their toys the whole day. The child's toys and games make no sense to adults but grown-up people too derive pleasure from the toys of the sensual world, that is, from the company of their children and grand children. Such sensual pleasure has no appeal for Buddhas and Arahats. It is highly esteemed by ordinary men and devas because they have no sense of higher values such as jhāna, vipassanā and Nibbāna.

            A person who is thus fond of sensual pleasure may be likened to a peasant living in out-of-the-way rural areas. To the urbanites those places are wholly devoid of the amenities of life, what with poor food, poor clothes, dirty dwellings, muddy foot-paths, and so forth. But the villagers are happy and they never think of leaving their native place. Likewise, common people and devas delight in their sensual objects. Whatever the teaching of Buddha and the Arahats, they love pleasure and spend all their time indulging in it. They feel ill at ease in the absence of sensual objects. They are so much pleased with their families, attendants and possessions that they cannot think of anything higher than sensual pleasure. Because of their deep-rooted love of pleasure, it is hard for them to understand or appreciate the subtle, profound Paṭiccasamuppāda and Nibbāna.


            The Buddha-dhamma makes little appeal to the masses since it is diametrically opposed to their sensual desire. People do not like even an ordinary sermon, let alone a discourse on Nibbāna, if it has no sensual touch. They do not seem interested in our teaching and no wonder, since it is devoid of melodious recitation, sentimental stories and hilarious jokes and other attractions. It is acceptable only to those who have practised vipassanā or who seek the dhamma on which they can rely for methods of meditation and extinction of defilements.

            But it is a mistake to deprecate, as some do, the sermons containing stories, jokes, etc as sutta sermons. Suttas differ basically from popular sermons in that they are profound, as witness Anattalakkhaṇa sutta, Saṭipatthāna sutta and so forth. The doctrine of Dependent Origination too belongs to Sutta Piṭaka. It is to be labelled Abhidhammā only because it is preached in the fashion of Abhidhammā Piṭaka.

            Since our teaching is unadulterated dhamma, some people confuse it with Abhidhammā and cannot follow it, much less grasp the Path and Nibbāna which it emphasizes. Paticcasamupāda is hard to understand because it concerns the correlations between causes and effects. There is no ego entity that exists independently of the law of causation. It was hard to accept this fact before the Buddha proclaimed the dhamma.

            The commentaries also points out the abstruse character of the doctrine. According to them there are four dhammas which defy understanding, viz., the four noble truths, the nature of a living being, the nature of rebirth and dependent origination.

            It is hard to understand and accept the truth of suffering, the truth about its cause, the truth about its cessation and the truth about the way to its extinction. It is hard to appreciate these truths, still harder to teach them to other people.

            Secondly, it is hard to understand that a living being is a nāma-rūpa process without any separate self, that the nāmarūpa complex is subject to the law of kamma that determines a man's future life according to his good or bad deeds.

            In the third place, it is hard to see how rebirth takes place as a result of defilement and kamma without the transfer of nāma-rūpa from a previous life.

            Lastly it is equally hard to understand Paṭiccasamuppāda. It involves the above three abstruse dhammas. Its negative aspect concerns the first two noble truths as well as the nature of a living being and rebirth while its positive aspect involves the other two truths. Hence it is most difficult to grasp or teach this doctrine. It may be easy to explain it to one who has attained the path and Nibbāna or one who has studied the piṭaka but it will mean little to one who has neither the illumination nor scriptural knowledge.

            The writer of the commentary on the doctrine was qualified to explain it because he might have attained the lower stages of the path or he might have a thorough knowledge of the Piṭaka. He refers to its difficulty probably in order that its exposition might be seriously studied by posterity. He likens the difficulty to the plight of a man who has jumped into the sea and cannot get to the bottom. He admits that he has written the exegesis on the basis of the Piṭaka and the old commentaries handed down by oral tradition. The same may be said of our teaching. Since it is hard to explain the doctrine, the yogī should pay special attention to it. If he follows the teaching superficially, he will understand nothing and without a fair knowledge of the doctrine, he is bound to suffer in the wilderness of samsāric existence.

            The substance of the Paṭiccasamuppāda teaching is as follows.

            From ignorance there arises saṅkhāra (effort or kamma-formation.) From kamma-formation there arises consciousness of the new existence. Consciousness gives rise to psycho-physical phenomena or nāma-rūpa. Nāma-rūpa leads to āyatana (six bases). From ayatana arises the phassa (impression). Phassa causes feeling; feeling leads to craving. From craving there results clinging (upādāna). Because of clinging there is the process of becoming (kamma-bhava), from the process of becoming there arises rebirth (jāti) and rebirth leads to old age, death, sorrow, grief, and lamentation. Thus arises the whole mass of suffering.


            According to the Buddha, avijjā is ignorance of the four Noble Truths, viz, the truths about suffering, its cause, its cessation and the way to its cessation. In a positive sense avijjā implies misconception or illusion. It makes us mistake what is false and illusory for truth and reality. It leads us astray and so it is labelled micchāpaṭipatti-avijjā.

            Avijjā therefore differs from ordinary ignorance. Ignorance of the name of a man or a village does not necessarily mean misinformation whereas the avijjā of Paṭiccasmuppāda means something more than ignorance. It is misleading like the ignorance of a man who has lost all sense of direction and who therefore thinks that the east is west or that the north is south. The man who does not know the truth of suffering has an optimistic view of life that is full of dukkha (pain and evil).

            It is mistake to seek the truth of dukkha in the book for it is to be found in one's own body. Seeing, hearing, in short, all nāma-rūpa arising from the six senses are dukkha. For this phenomenal existence is impermanent, undesirable and unpleasant. It may end at any time and so all is pain and suffering. But this dukkha is not realized by living beings who look upon their existence as blissful and good.

            So they seek pleasant sense-objects, good sights, good sounds, good food, etc. Their effort to secure what they believe to be the good things of life is due to their illusion (avijjā) about their existence. Avijjā is here like the green eye-glass that makes a horse eat the dry grass which it mistakes for green grass. Living beings are mired in sensual pleasure because they see every thing through rose-coloured glasses. They harbour illusions about the nature of sense-objects and nāma-rūpa.

            A blind man may be easily deceived by another man who offers him a worthless longyi, saying that it is an expensive, high quality longyi. The blind man will believe him and he will like the longyi very much. He will be disillusioned only when he recovers his sight and then he will throw it away at once. Like-wise, as a victim of avijjā, a man enjoys life, being blind to its anicca, dukkha and anatta. He becomes disenchanted when introspection of nāma-rūpa makes him aware of the unwholesome nature of his existence.

            Introspection of nāma-rūpa or vipassanā contemplation has nothing to do with bookish knowledge. It means thorough watching and ceaseless contemplation of all psycho-physical phenomena that comprise both the sense-objects and the corresponding consciousness. The practice leads to full awareness of their nature. As concentration develops, the yogī realizes their arising and instant vanishing, thereby gaining an insight into their anicca, dukkha and anatta.

            Avijjā makes us blind to reality because we are unmindful. Unmindfulness gives rise to the illusion of man, woman, hand, leg, etc., in the conventional sense of the terms. We do not know that seeing, for instance, is merely the nāma-rūpa or psycho-physical process, that the phenomenon arises and vanishes, that it is impermanent, unsatisfactory and unsubstantial.

            Some people who never contemplate die without knowing anything about nāma-rūpa. The real nature of nāma-rūpa process is realized by the mindful person. But the insight does not occur in the beginning when concentration is not yet developed. Illusion or the natural way of consciousness precedes contemplation and so the beginner does not gain a clear insight into the nature of nāma-rūpa. It is only through steadfast practice that concentration and perception develop and lead to insight-knowledge.

            If, for example, while practising mindfulness, the yogī feels itchy, he has a bare awareness of being itchy. He does not think of the hand, the leg, or any other part of the body that is itchy nor does the idea of self as the subject of itchiness, "I feel itchy" occurs to him. There arises only the continuous sensation of itchiness. The sensation does not remain permanent but passes away as he notes it. The watching consciousness promptly notes every psycho-physical phenomenon, leaving no room for the illusion of hand, leg and so on.

            Illusion dominates the unmindful person and makes him blind to the unsatisfactory nature (dukkha) of all sense-objects. It replaces dukkha with sukha. Indeed avijjā means both ignorance of what is real and misconception that distorts reality.

            Because he does not know the truth of dukkha, man seeks pleasant sense-objects. Thus ignorance leads to effort and activity (saṅkhāra). According to the scriptures, because of avijjā there arises saṅkhāra but there are two links, viz, taṇhā and upādāna between them. Ignorance gives rise to craving (taṇhā) which later on develops into attachment (upādāna). Craving and attachment stem from the desire for pleasure and are explicitly mentioned in the middle part of the doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppada. When the past is fully described, reference is made to avijja, taṇhā, upādāna, kamma and saṅkhāra.


            People do not know that craving is the origin (samudaya) of suffering. On the contrary they believe that it is attachment that makes them happy, that without attachment life would be dreary. So they ceaselessly seek pleasant sense-objects, food, clothing, companion and so forth. In the absence of these objects of attachment they usually feel ill at ease and find life monotonous.

            For common people life without attachment would be indeed wholly devoid of pleasure. It is taṇhā that hides the unpleasantness of life and makes it pleasant. But for the Arahat who has done away with taṇhā, it is impossible to enjoy life. He is always bent on Nibbāna, the cessation of conditioned suffering.

            Taṇhā cannot exert much pressure even on the yogīs (meditators) when they become absorbed in the practise of vipassanā. So some yogīs do not enjoy life as much as they did before. On their return from meditation retreat they get bored at home and feel ill at ease in the company of their families. To other people the yogī may appear to be conceited but in fact his behaviour is a sign of loss of interest in the workaday world. But if he cannot as yet overcome the sensual desire, his boredom is temporary and he usually gets readjusted to his home life in due course. His family need not worry over his mood or behaviour for it is not easy for a man to become thoroughly sick of his home life. So the yogī should examine himself and see how much he is really disenchanted with life. If his desire for pleasure lingers, he must consider himself still in the grip of taṇhā.

            Without taṇhā we would feel discomfited. In conjunction with avijjā, taṇhā makes us blind to dukkha and creates the illusion of sukha. So we frantically seek sources of pleasure. Consider, for example, men's fondness for movies and dramatic performances. These entertainments cost time and money but taṇhā makes them irresistible although to the person who has no craving for them they are sources of suffering.

            A more obvious example is smoking. The smoker delights in inhaling the tobacco smoke but to the non-smoker it is a kind of self-inflicted suffering. The non-smoker is free from all the troubles that beset the smoker. He leads a relatively care-free and happy life because he has no craving for tobacco. Taṇhā as the source of dukkha is also evident in the habit of betel-chewing. Many people enjoy it although in fact it is a troublesome habit.

            Like the smoker and the betel-chewer people seek to gratify their craving and this taṇhā, inspired effort is the mainspring of rebirth that leads to old age, sickness and death.

            Suffering and desire as its cause are evident in everyday life but it is hard to see these truths. For they are profound and one can realize them not through reflection but only through the practice of vipassanā.


               Avijjā also means ignorance of the cessation of dukkha and the way to it. These two truths are also profound and hard to understand. For the truth about cessation of dukkha concerns Nibbāna which is to be realized only on the Ariyan holy path and the truth about the way is certainly known only to the yogī who has attained the path. No wonder that many people are ignorant of these truths.

            Ignorance of the end of suffering is widespread and so world religions describe the supreme goal in many ways. Some say that suffering will come to an end automatically in due course of time. Some regard sensual pleasure as the highest good and reject the idea of a future life. This variety of beliefs is due to ignorance of the real Nibbāna. Even among Buddhists some hold that Nibbāna is an abode or a sort of paradise and there are many arguments about it. All these show how hard it is to understand Nibbāna.

            In reality Nibbāna is the total extinction of the nāma-rūpa process that occurs ceaselessly on the basis of causal relationship. Thus according to the doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppāda, avijjā, saṅkhāra, etc give rise to nāma-rūpa, etc and this causal process involves old age, death and other evils of life. If avijjā, etc become extinct on the Ariyan path, so do their effects and all kinds of dukkha and this complete end of dukkha is Nibbāna.

            For example, a lamp that is refueled will keep on burning but if it is not refueled there will be a complete extinction of flame. Likewise for the yogī on the Ariyan path who has attained Nibbāna, all the causes such as avijjā, etc., have become extinct and so do all the effects such as rebirth, etc. This means total extinction of suffering, that is, Nibbāna which the yogī must understand and appreciate before he actually realizes it.

            This concept of Nibbāna does not appeal to those who have a strong craving for life. To them the cessation of nāma-rūpa process would mean nothing more than eternal death. Nevertheless, intellectual acceptance of Nibbāna is necessary because on it depends the yogī's whole-hearted and persistent effort to attain the supreme goal.

            Knowledge of the fourth truth, viz, truth about the way to the end of dukkha is also of vital importance. Only the Buddhas can proclaim the right path; it is impossible for anyone else, be he a deva, a Brahmā or a human being, to do so. But there are various speculations and teachings about the path. Some advocate ordinary morality such as love, altruism, patience, alms giving, etc., while others stress the practice of mundane jhāna. All these practices are commendable. According to the Buddhist teaching, they lead to relative welfare in the deva-Brahmā worlds but do not ensure freedom from samsāric dukkha such as old age, etc., So they do not form the right path to Nibban although they are helpful in the effort to attain it.

            Some resort to self-mortification such as fasting, living in a state of nature and so forth. Some worship devas or animals. Some live like animals. From the Buddhist point of view all these represent what is termed sīlabbataparāmāsa which means any practice that has nothing to do with the Eightfold Path.

            The Eightfold Noble Path comprises right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right contemplation. The path is of three kinds, viz., the basic path, the preliminary path and the Ariyan path. Of these the most vital is the Ariyan path but this path should not be the primary objective of the yogī nor does it require him to spend much time and energy on it. For as the vipassanā practice on the preliminary path develops, the insight on the Ariyan level occurs for a thought-moment. For example, it requires much time and effort to produce fire by friction but ignition is a matter of a moment's duration. Similarly, the insight on the Ariyan path is instantaneous but it presupposes much practice of vipassanā on the preliminary path.


            Vipassanā insight is the insight that occurs at every moment of contemplation. The yogī who notes every psycho-physical phenomenon becomes aware of its real nature. Thus he focuses his attention on the bending of his arms or legs and he realizes the elements of rigidity and motion. This means right view in connection with vāyodhātu. Without mindfulness there will arise illusion of "It is the hand." "It is a man," and so forth. Only the mindful yogī sees things as they really are.

            The same may be said of right view in regard to sensation in the body, e.g., heat or pain and mental activities, e.g., imagination, intention. When the mind becomes fixed and calm, the yogī finds the nāma-rūpa phenomena arising and vanishing and so he gains insight into their anicca, dukkha and anatta.

            Right belief implies right intention and other associative dhamma on the path. Insight on the path occurs at every moment of contemplation. With the attainment of perfect insight into the three characteristics of existence, the yogī sees Nibbāna. Hence if Nibbāna is to be realized here and now, the practice of vipassanā is essential. The yogī who cannot as yet practise vipassanā should focus on the path that is the basis of vipassanā practice. This basic path means doing good deeds motivated by the belief in kamma. In other words, it is the practice of dāna, sīla etc., in the hope of attaining Nibbāna.

            All the paths (magga)-the basic, the preliminary and the Ariyan-form the threefold path leading to Nibbāna. In particular the yogī must recognize the Ariyan path as the dhamma that is to be desired, cherished and adored. Such a recognition is essential to strenuous effort in the practice of vipassanā. The yogī must also accept the vipassanā magga as a noble dhamma and know how to practise it.

            Some people are ignorant of the way to Nibbāna. On top of that they belittle the Nibbāna-oriented good deeds of other people. Some deprecate the teaching and practice of other people although they have never practised vipassanā effectively. Some criticize the right method because they are attached to their wrong method. All these people have avijjā which means ignorance of and misconception about the right path. It is avijjā not to know that dāna, sīla and bhāvanā lead to Nibbāna and it is avijjā too to regard dāna, etc as harmful to one's interest. The more destructive avijjā is ignorance of and illusion about the right method of contemplation.

            Ignorance of the right path is the most terrible form of avijjā. For it makes its victims blind to good deeds and creates illusions thereby preventing them from attaining human happiness or divine bliss, let alone the Ariyan path and Nibbāna. Yet most people remain steeped in ignorance, unmindful of the need to devote themselves to dāna, sīla and bhāvanā.


            To them sensual pleasure is the source of happiness, Nibbāna as the extinction of nāma-rūpa is undesirable and the way to it is arduous and painful. So they seek to gratify their desire through three kinds of action (kamma) viz., bodily action, verbal action and mental action. Some of these actions may be ethically good and some may be ethically bad. Some people will practice dāna, etc for their welfare hereafter, while some will resort to deceit or robbery to become rich.

            A Pāḷi synonym for kamma (action) is saṅkhāra. Saṅkhāra is also of three kinds, viz., saṅkhāra by thought, saṅkhāra by speech and saṅkhāra by body. Saṅkhāra presupposes cetanā (volition). The function of cetanā is to conceive, to urge or to incite and as such it is the mainspring of all actions. It is involved in killing, alms-giving, etc. The yogī knows its nature empirically through contemplation.

            In another sense there are three kinds of saṅkhāras, viz, puññābhi (wholesome) saṅkhāra, with its good kammic result, apuññābhi (unwholesome) saṅkhara with its bad kammic result and aneñjabhi-saṅkhāra that leads to wholesome arūpajhāna which literally means immaterial jhāna. Rūpajhāna and all the good actions having the kammic results in the sensual world are to be classified as puññābhisaṅkhāra. Puññā literally means something that cleanses or purifies. Just as a man washes the dirt off his body with soap, so also we have to rid ourselves of kammic impurities through dāna, sīla and bhāvanā. These good deeds are conducive to welfare and prosperity in the present life and hereafter.

            Another meaning of puññā is the tendency to fulfil the desire of the doer of the good deeds. Good deeds help to fulfil various human desires, e.g., the desire for health, longevity, wealth and so forth. If a good deed is motivated by the hope for Nibbāna, it leads to a life that makes it possible to attain his goal or it may ensure his happiness and welfare till the end of his last existence. Abhisaṅkhāra is the effort to do something for one's own welfare. It tends to have good or evill kammic results. So puññābhi saṅkhāra is good deed with good kammic result. There are eight type of good deed in sensual sphere (kāmavacārakusala) and five types in fine material sphere (rūpāvacāra). All these may be summed up as of three kinds, viz., dāna, sīla and bhāvanā.

            Giving dāna gladly means wholesome consciousness which is kammically very fruitful. So the donor should rejoice before, during and after the act of alms-giving. In the scriptures this kind of dāna is credited with great karmic productivity. The attitude of the donor may also be one of indifference (upekkhā) but if the mind is clear, his act of dāna too has high kammic potential. Any act of alms-giving that is based on the belief in kamma is rational and it may bear fruit in the form of rebirth with no predisposition to greed, ill-will and ignorance. An act of dāna that has nothing to do with a sense of its moral value or the belief in kammic result is good but unintelligent and it will lead to rebirth with no great intelligence. It may bear such kammic fruit in everyday life but it does not make the donor intelligent enough to attain the path in his next life.

            Again one may do a good deed spontaneously without being urged by others (asaṅkhārika-kusala); some do good deeds at the instigation of others (sasaṅkhārika-kusala). Of these two kinds of good deeds the former is kammically more fruitful than the later. When we consider the four kinds of deeds the former is kammically more fruitful than the later. When we consider the four kinds of good deeds mentioned earlier in terms of these last two attributes, we have a total of eight types of wholesome consciousness in the sensual sphere. Whenever we do a good deed, we are prompted to do so by one of these kusala dhammas; when we practise concentration and meditation, we have to begin with these eight types of wholesome dhammas.

            It is bhāvanā that can lead to jhāna, the yogī attains rūpāvacāra jhāna when his samādhi is well developed. Jhāna means total concentration of mind on an object of mental training. Samatha-Jhāna is concentration for bare tranquility. Jhāna samādhi is like flame burning in still air. According to the Suttas, the rūpāvacāra jhāna has four levels; in Abhidhamma it has five levels.


            Opposed to puññābhisaṅkhāra is apuññābhisaṅkhāra or unwholesome kamma formations. These immoral deeds lead to lower worlds and evils in human life such as ugliness, infirmities and so forth. They number twelve in terms of consciousness, viz, eight rooted in greed (lobha), two rooted in ill-will (dosa) and two rooted in ignorance (moha).

            The lobha-based dhammas comprise four with wrong belief and four without it. Of the four dhammas with wrong belief, two are joyful, spontaneous (asaṅkhārikha) dhamma and joyful but unspontaneous (sasaṅkhārika) dhamma. The neutral (upekkhā) unwholesome dhammas may be classified in the same way. Likewise there are two joyful, lobha-based dhammas without wrong belief and two lobha-based dhammas without joy and wrong belief. Every kamma is characterized by one of these eight lobha-based dhammas. The dosa-based dhamma is of two kinds, viz, spontaneous kamma and unspontaneous kamma, This dosa-based consciousness is the mainspring of anger, dejection, fear and revulsion.

            The two kinds of moha-based consciousness are doubt (vicikicchā) and restlessness (uddhacca). The former concerns doubts about the Buddha, Dhamma, Saṅgha, sīla, samādhi, the idea of a future life and so forth. The latter refers to the person who is distracted and absent-minded. The mind is seldom calm and it usually goes wandering when it is not restrained through the practice of bhāvanā. It is said, however, that uddhacca does not lead to the lower worlds. The other eleven unwholesome dhammas do so under certain circumstances and even in case of a good rebirth they usually have kammic effects such as sickliness. These twelve kinds of unwholesome volition (cetanā) are called apuññābhisañkhāra.

            All over the world people wish to be happy and so they strive for their material welfare in the present life and hereafter. But it is greed and ill-will that largely characterize their activities. Wholesome consciousness is confined to those who have good friends, who have heard their dhamma and who think rationally.

            Some go morally astray, being misled by their selfish teacher. In the lifetime of the Buddha a lay Buddhist abused good monks and so, on his death he became a peta in the latrine of the monastery he had donated to the Saṅgha. He told the elder thera Moggallāna about his misdeed when the latter saw him with his divine eye. What a terrible fate for a man who had materially supported the Saṅgha for his welfare in afterlife but was misguided to the lower world by his teacher. This shows that the person whose company we seek should possess not only deep knowledge but also good character.

            The mark of a good man is abstinence from any act, speech or thought that is harmful to other people. Those who keep company with good men or good bhikkhus have the opportunity to hear the good dhamma and if he thinks wisely his thoughts will lead to wholesome kamma. On the other hand evil teachers or friends, false teachings and improper thoughts may lead to moral disaster. Some who bore unblemished character in the beginning were ruined by corrupt thoughts. They were convicted of theft, robbery or misappropriation and their long standing reputation was damaged once and for ever. All their suffering had its origin in the illusion of happiness. Contrary to their expectations, they found themselves in trouble when it was too late. Some misdeeds do not produce immediate kammic results but they come to light in due course and lead to suffering. If retribution does not follow the evil-doer here and now, it overtakes him in afterlife as in the case of the donor of the monastery who became a peta for his evil words.

            His teacher who had misguided him fared worse after his death. For he occupied a place below his former pupil and had to live on his excreta. The kammic result of his misdeed was indeed frightful. He had committed it for his own end but it backfired and he had to suffer terribly for it.

            Some jungle tribes make animal sacrifices to gods for good harvest, security, etc. These primitive beliefs still prevail among some urban people. Some worship the chief nat as if he were the Buddha. Some kill animals to feed guests on the occasion of religious alms-giving. Even some ignorant Buddhists have misgivings about this practice. Whatever the object of the donor, killing has bad kammic result and it is not a good deed despite the belief of the killer to the contrary.

            A good deed bears the mark of moral purity. Killing or hurting a living being cannot be morally pure in any sense if you identify yourself with the victim. He faces death or endures ill-treatment only because he cannot avoid it. He will surely retaliate if he is in a position to do so. Some people pray for vengeance and so the killer is killed in his next existence or he has to suffer in hell for his misdeed. The Piṭaka abounds in many instances of the kammic consequences of killing.

            Some long for human or deva life and devote themselves to dāna, sīla and bhāvanā. Their good deeds serve to fulfil their wishes and lead to welfare in afterlife but every life is subject to old age and death and human life is inextricably bound up with ill-health and mental suffering. Some crave for the Brahmā-world and practise jhāna. They may live happily for many kappas (world-systems) as Brahmās. But when life has run its course, they will be reborn as human beings or devas and any evil deed that they do may bring them to the lower worlds. After all the glorification of the Brahmā-life is an illusion.

            The illusion of happiness is not confined to common people. The illusion (vipallāsa and avijjā) that makes us regard dukkha as sukha lingers at the first two stages of the holy path and even at the anāgāmi stage the yogī still mistakes material life (rūpa-bhava) and immaterial life (arūpa-bhava) for a life of bliss. So the object of the Ariyas at the first three stages is to do good. As for the common people they are mired in all the four illusions that make them regard the impermanent as permanent, the dukkha of nāmarūpa as sukha, the impersonal as personality (atta) and the unpleasant as pleasant. Associated with these illusions are the four avijjās. Because of these misconceptions and ignorance every bodily, verbal or mental action gives rise to good or bad kamma. A good kamma arises only from volitional effort coupled with faith, mindfulness and so forth. If the mind is left to itself, it is likely to produce bad kamma.


            Some people misinterpret the lack of good or bad kamma on the part of the Arahat and say that we should avoid doing good deed. For an ordinary person the rejection of good kamma will mean the upsurge of bad kamma just as the exodus of good people from a city leaves only fools and rogues or the removal of useful trees is followed by the growth of useless grass and weeds. The man who rejects good deeds is bound to do bad deeds that will land him in the lower worlds. It will be hard for him to return to the human world.

            In point of fact the Arahat's dissociation from good kamma means only that because of  the extinction of avijjā his action is karmically unproductive. Indeed the Arahats do good deeds such as revering the elder theras, preaching, giving alms, helping living beings who are in trouble and so forth. But what with their total realization of the four noble truths and the elimination of avijjā, their good actions do not have any kammic effect. So it is said that the Arahat does not have good kamma, not that he avoids doing good deeds.

            An ordinary person who does not care for good deeds because of his avijjā and mistaken view will build up only bad kamma that are bound to lead to the lower worlds. In fact the lack of the desire to do good is a sign of abysmal ignorance that makes the holy path and Nibbāna remote. The mind becomes inclined to good deeds in so far as avijjā loses its hold on it. A sotāpanna yogī is more interested in doing good than when he was an ordinary man. The same may be said of those-at the highers stages of the Ariyan path. The only difference is the increasing desire to give up doing things irrelevant to the path and devote more time to contemplation. So good deeds should not be lumped together with bad deeds and purposely avoided. Every action that is bound up with avijjā means either good kamma or bad kamma. In the absence of good kamma all will be bad kamma.


            Truth and falsehood are mutually exclusive. If you do not know the truth you accept falsehood and vice versa. Those who do not know the four noble truths have misconceptions about dukkha which posing as sukha, deceive and oppress them.

            Apart from taṇhā which when gratified affords pleasure, everything in the sensual world is real dukkha. All sense-objects are subject to ceaseless flux and unreliable. Yet to the ignorant person they appear to be good and pleasant. They make him nostalgic about what they regard as their happy days in the past and optimistic about their future. Because of their misconception, they long for what they consider to be the good things in life. This is the cause of their dukkha but they do not realize it. On the contrary they think that their happiness depends on the fulfillment of their desires. So they see nothing wrong with their desire for sensual pleasure. In fact the truths about the end of dukkha and the way to it are foreign to most people. Some who learn these truths from others or accept them intellectually do not appreciate them. They do not care for Nibbāna or the way to it. They think that the way is beset with hardships and privations.

            The hope for happiness is the mainspring of human action. Actions in deed, speech or thought are called kamma or saṅkhāra. We have referred to three kinds of saṅkhāra, the two kinds of good kamma comprising the first saṅkhāra, viz., the eight good kammas in the sensual world and good kammas in the material world; we have also mentioned two kinds of good kamma or consciousness, viz., one associated with intelligence. In the practice of vipassanā the yogī's mind is intelligent if it becomes aware of the real nature of nāma-rūpa (anicca, dukkha, anatta), through contemplation. It is not intelligent if it means little more than the recitation of Pāḷi words and superficial observation. In ordinary morality a sense of moral values is intelligent if it is associated with the belief in the law of kamma.

            Some people say that an intelligent act of dāna must involve the contemplation of the anicca, dukkha and anatta of the donor, the recipient and the offering. This view is based on Aṭṭhasālini (a commentary on abhidhmmāpiṭaka) which mentions the contemplation on the impermanence of everything after giving alms. But the reference is to contemplation after the act of dāna, not before or while doing it. Moreover, the object is not to make the act intelligent but to create wholesome kamma in vipassanā practice. If by intelligent dāna is meant only the dāna that presupposes such contemplation, all the other dāna of non-Buddhists would have to be dubbed unintelligent acts and it is of course absurd to do so.

            The accounts of alms-giving by bodhisattas make no mention of contemplation nor did the Buddha insist on it as a prerequisite to an act of dāna. The scriptures say only that the kammic potential of dāna depends of the spiritual level of the recipient and this is the only teaching that we should consider in alms-giving. If the donor and the recipient were to be regarded as mere nāma-rūpa subject to anicca, etc, they would be on equal footing. The act of dāna would then lack inspiration and much kammic potential.

            In fact the object of alms-giving is not vipassanā contemplation but the benefits accruing to the donor. So the Buddha points out the would-be recipients who can make dāna immensely beneficial and the importance of right reflection (belief in kamma).

            On one occasion Visākha, the lay woman asked the Buddha for lifelong permission to make eight kinds of offering to Saṅgha; these were (1) bathing garments for the bhikkhus, (2) food for guest-monks, (3) food for travelling monks, (4) food for sick monks, (5) food for the monk who attended on a sick monk (6) medicine for the sick monk, (7) rice-gruel for the Saṅgha and (8) bathing garments for the bhikkhunīs. The Buddha asked Visākha what benefits she hoped to have in offering such things and the substance of Visākha's reply is as follows.

            "At the end of the lent the bhikkhus from all parts of the country will come to see the Buddha. They will tell the Lord about the death of certain monks and ask him about their rebirth and stages on the holy path that they (the deceased monks) had attained. The Lord will reveal their spiritual attainments. I will then approach the visiting monks and ask them whether their late fellow-monks had ever visited Sāvatthi city. If they say yes, I will conclude that the Noble one who is now at the sotāpanna or any other stage on the holy path must have certainly used one of my offerings. This remembrance of my good kamma will fill me with joy. It will be conducive to peace, transquillity and self-development.

            Here it is worthy of note that the reference is not to the contemplation on the impermanence of the nāma-rūpa of the deceased monks but to the spiritual attainments that distinguished them in afterlife. Importance is attached to the contemplation that leads to ecstasy and training in self-development. Hence the most appropriate object of contemplation in doing dāna is the noble attributes of the recipient such as the noble character of the Buddha when laying flowers at the shrine, the holy life of the bhikkhu when offering food and so forth.

            Preaching or hearing the dhamma is a wholesome kamma and it is an intelligent act if the dhamma is understood. Ever good deed based on the belief in kamma is an intelligent kamma. Without the belief a good act is wholesome but unintelligent as are the good acts of some children who imitate the elders and worship the Buddha image and the good acts of some people who reject the belief in kamma but are helpful, polite and charitable.

            The five material wholesome dhammas (rūpa-kusala-dhamma) are those associated with five jhānas. They are accessible only through the practice of samatha that leads to jhāna. The eight wholesome dhammas and the five material wholesome dhammas form the puññābhisaṅkhāra. Apuññābhisaṅkhāra or unwholesome kammas number twelve in terms of consciousness. Here saṅkhāra means volition (cetanā). Of the twelve unwholesome saṅkhāras eight are based on greed, two on anger and two on ignorance.

            The greed-based (lobha-mūla) consciousness is of eight kinds viz., four with joy and attachment and four without joy but with attachment (upekkhā sahagutta). Of the first four kinds two are bound up with belief and of the two with the belief or without the belief one is nonspontaneous (sasaṅkhārika) and the other is spontaneous (asaṅkhārika). Belief is of three kinds, viz., belief in ego-entity, belief in immortality of ego and belief in annihilation of the ego without there being any kammic effect of good or bad deeds.

            Few people are free from the belief in egoentity. The belief dominates those who do not know that life is a nāma-rūpa process without a soul or a being. The belief is weak among those who have some knowledge of Buddhist scriptures but their bookish knowledge does not help them to overcome it completely. The yogīs who have had a clear insight into the nature of nāma-rūpa through contemplation are usually free from the belief. Yet they may hark back to the belief if they stop contemplating before they attain the path. As for the common people the ego-belief is deep-rooted, making them think that it is the self or the ego which is the agent, of whatever they do or feel or think. Again those who believe in total extinction after death and reject the idea of future life and kamma have unwholesome consciousness that is bound up with nihilistic beliefs.

            Hatred-based, (dosa-mūla) consciousness is of two kinds, viz., voluntary consciousness and involuntary consciousness. But there are many kinds of hatred such as anger, envy, anxiety, grief, fear and so forth. Ignorance-based (moha-mūla) consciousness comprises doubt and restlessness. Doubts about the Buddha, Nibbāna, anatta and so forth are labelled vicikicchā. The mind is subject to doubt (uddhacca) when it wanders here and there restlessly.

            Thus apuññābhisaṅkhāra means the eight greed-based mental factors, two hatred-bases mental factors and two ignorance-based mental factors. It is opposed to puññābhisaṅkhāra. It serves to purify nāma-rūpa, leads to good rebirths with good kammic results where as the other defiles the nāma-rūpa process and leads to bad rebirth with bad kammic results.

            People do evil deeds for their welfare. They kill, steal, rob or give false evidence at court for their well-being. Even those who kill their parents do so to achieve their own ends. For example, prince Ajātasattu killed his father to become king. Misguided by his teacher Devadatta, he had concluded that he would be able to enjoy life as a king for a longer period if he could make away with his father and take his place. For his great evil of parricide and the murder of a sotāpannā at that, he was seized with remorse and anxiety that causes him physical suffering as well. Later on he was killed by his son and reborn in hell where he is now suffering terribly for his misdeed.

            In the time of Kakusanna Buddha the Māra called Susi did his utmost to harm the Buddha and the Saṅgha. Failing to achieve his object, he possessed a man and stoned to death the chief disciple Arahat behind the Buddha. For this horrible crime he instantly landed in Avici hell, the lowest of the thirty-one worlds of living beings. As a Māra he had lorded it over others but in Avici he lay prostrate under the heels of the guardians of hell. He had hoped to rejoice over the fulfillment of his evil desire but now he had to suffer for his evil kamma. This is true of evil-doers all over the world.

            It is the hope for happiness also that forms the mainspring of other two types of action, viz, puññābhisaṅkhara and aneñjhābhisaṅkhāra. Aneñjābhisaṅkhara means the four arūpajhānakusala-dhammas. Aneñja means equanimity or self-possession. A loud noise nearby may upset the equanimity (samāpatti) of a yogī who is absorbed in rūpa-jhāna. But arūpa-jhāna is invulnerable to such distractions. Arūpa-jhāna is of four kinds according as it relates to (1) sphere of unbounded space (ākāsānañcāyatana-jhāna) sphere of nothingness (akiñcaññāyatana-jhāna) and (4) sphere of neither-perception-nor-nor-perception (nevasaññānasaññāyatana-jhāna). These four jhānas are the saṅkhāras that lead to the four arūpa worlds. Apuññābhisaṅkhāra leads to the four lower worlds and puññābhisaṅkhāra leads to human, deva and rūpa-Brahma worlds.

            People do these there kinds of kammas or saṅkāras for their welfare and as a result there arises viññāṇa or consciousness. With viññāṇa there also come into being nāmarūpa, salāyatana, phassa, etc of the new existence.


            Because of avijjā there is saṅkhāra which in turn causes viññāṇa. As the result of the good or bad kamma in the previous life there arises the stream of consciousness beginning with rebirth consciousness in the new life. Evil deeds may, for example, leads to the four lower worlds. After that there arises the stream of viññāṇa called bhavaṅga-citta which functions ceaselessly when the six kinds of vīthi consciousness do not occur at the moment of seeing, hearing, smelling, eating, touching and thinking. In other words, bhavaṅga is the kind of subconsciousness that we have when we are asleep. We die with this subconsciousness and it is then called cutti-citta. So the rebirth-consciousness, the subconsciousness and the cuti or death consciousness represent the mind which results from the kamma of previous life.

            The five kinds of consciousness associated with the five unpleasant sense-objects such as unpleasant eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, etc., are due to unwholesome kamma as are (1) the consciousness that is focussed on these five sense-objects and (2) the inquiring (santirana) consciousness. There are altogether seven types of consciousness that stem from bad kamma (apuññābhisaṅkhāra). As for aneñjābhi-saṅkhāra, because of the four arūpakusala-dhammas there arises the resulting arūpa-consciousness in the four immaterial worlds in the form of rebirth-consciousness in the beginning, the bhavaṅga citta in the middle and the cuticitta as the end of existence.

            Similarly because of the five rūpakusala-dhammas there arise five rūpa vipākacittas in rūpa-brahmā worlds. Then there are eight mahāvipākacittas corresponding to eight good kammas in the sensual sphere. They form the rebirth, bhavaṅga and cuti cittas in the human words and six deva-worlds. They also register pleasant sense-objects (tadārammana) after seven impulse-moments (javana) that occur on seeing, hearing, etc. Also due to good kamma of the sensual sphere are the five kinds of consciousness associated with five pleasant sense-objects, the registering consciousness, the joyful, inquiring consciousness and the nonchalant, inquiring consciousness. Hence the resulting (vipāka) consciousness is of thirty two kinds, viz., four arūpavipāka, five rūpavipāka, seven akusala vipāka and sixteen kusala vipāka in sensual sphere. All these thirty-two vipāka are resultants of saṅkhāra.


            It is very important but hard to understand how saṅkhāra gives rise to rebirth-consciousness. Ledī Sayādaw points out that this part of the teaching on Paṭiccasamuppāda leaves much room for misunderstanding. It is necessary to understand the extinction of the last consciousness (cuti citta) together with all nāma-rūpa as well as the immediate arising of the rebirth-consciousness (Patisandhi citta) together with the new nāma-rūpa as a result of good or bad kammas in the case of living beings who are not yet free from defilements. Lack of this understanding usually leads to the belief in transmigration of souls (sassatadiṭṭhi) or the belief in annihilation after death (ucchedadiṭṭhi) which is held by modern materialists.

            The belief in annihilation is due to ignorance of the relation between cause and effect after death. It is easy to see how avijjā leads to saṅkhāra and how the sense-bases (āyatana), contact, sensation, craving, etc form links in the chain of causation for these are evident in the facts of life. But the emergence of new existence following death is not apparent and hence the belief that there is nothing after death.

            Learned people who think on the basis of faith usually accept the teaching that saṅkhāra gives rise to rebirth consciousness. But it does not lend itself to purely rational and empirical approach and today it is being challenged by the materialistic view of life. The way rebirth takes place is crystal clear to the yogī who has practised vipassanā. He finds that the units of consciousness arise and pass always ceaselessly, that they appear and disappear one after another rapidly. This is what he discovers by experience, not what he learns from his teachers. Of course he does not know so much in the beginning. He discovers the fact only when he attains sammāsana and udayabbaya insights. The general idea of death and rebirth mental units dawns on him with the development of paccaya-pariggaha insights but it is sammāsana and udayabbaya insights that leave no doubt about rebirth. On the basis of his insight he realizes that death means the disappearance of the last unit of consciousness and that rebirth means the arising of the first unit of consciousness in the manner of the vanishing and arising of consciousness-units that he notes in the practice of vipassanā.

            Those who do not have vipassanā insight miss the point. They believe in a permanent ego and identify it with the mind. It is rejected by those who have a good knowledge of Abhidhamma but it lingers in some people because of attachment to it in their previous lives. Even the contemplating yogī who is not yet intellectually mature sometimes feels tempted to accept it.


            To the ordinary people who are wedded to the ego-belief death means the extinction of individual entity or its displacement to another abode or existence. This is a misconception called ucchedadiṭṭhi if it is the belief in annihilation or sassatadiṭṭhi if it is the belief in the transfer of the soul to another body or abode. Some believe that consciousness develops spontaneously with the growth and maturation of the body (ahetukadiṭṭhi).

            Some have misconceptions about samsāra or nāma-rūpa process. They regard the body as the temporary abode of the life principle that passes or from one abode to another. The disintegration of the physical body is undeniable but some people pin their faith to the resurrection of the body in due course of time and so they treat the dead body with respect. These views confirm the Ledī Sayādaw's statement that the causal links between saṅkhāra and viññāṇa lends itself to misinterpretation.

            Ordinary Buddhists are not wholly free from these misconceptions but because of their belief in the Buddhist doctrine of anatta, they do not harbour the illusions so blindly as to harm their vipassanā practice. So even without a thorough knowledge about the nature of death, rebirth and nāma-rūpa, they can enlighten themselves through contemplation.

            For example, shortly after the parinibbāna of the Buddha the thera Channa practised vipassanā but made little progress because of his ego-belief. Then as he followed Ānandā's discourse on Paticcasamuppāda, he contemplated, overcame his illusion and attained Arahatship. Again in the time of the Buddha bhikkhu Yamaka believed that the Arahat was annihilated after his parinibbana. Sāriputtrā summoned and preached to him. While following the sermon, Yamaka contemplated, and achieved liberation. So those who have faith in the Buddha need not be disheartened. If they practise vipassanā zealously and whole-heartedly, they will become enlightened.

            Because of their ignorance and doubts about the nature of death and conception or leaning to uccheda belief, some people ask whether there is a future life after death. The question by itself presupposes atta or soul or life-force in a living being. Materialism rejects the idea of soul but the ego-illusion is implicit in its differentiation of the living from the dead. The question of those who accept the ego explicitly or by implication are hard to answer from the Buddhist point of view. If we say that there is future life, they will conclude that we support the ego-belief. But Buddhism does not categorically deny the future life. Hence the Buddha's refusal to answer this question. Moreover, it is hard to produce evidence for ordinary people. Psychic persons may be able to point out the hell or the deva-worlds but skeptics will dismiss such exhibition as black magic or chicanery. So the Buddha did not answer the question directly but said that there is continuum of nāma-rūpa process in the wake of death without the extinction of defilements.

            The problem of future life does not admit of intellectual approach. It is to be settled only through certain Buddhist practices. These practices enable the yogī to acquire psychic powers by virtue of which he can see the dead, the good men who have attained the deva-worlds as well as the evil persons who are suffering in the nether worlds. What he sees is as clear as what an observer who occupies a position directly opposite two houses sees-persons passing from one house to the other. Among the many devas, animals, etc of the higher and lower realms, he (the yogī) can easily find the person whom he wants to see.

            It is possible for the yogīs to attain jhāna and psychic powers. There is no teaching which rules out this possibility. Some practising yogīs have in fact had paranormal contact with the other world (paraloka). But paranormal gifts are hard to come by. Their emergence depends on intense concentration and so the easier way is to practise vipassanā. The problem of life becomes fairly clear when the development of paccayapariggaha insight makes the yogī well aware of the nature of death and conception. It becomes clearer when he attains sammāsana, udayabbaya and bhaṅga insights for then he sees clearly how the consciousness units arise and pass away ceaselessly one after another and how death means the passing away of the last unit to be followed by conception or the arising of the first consciousness-unit in a new existence. But this insight is still vulnerable and it is only when the yogī attains at least the sotāpatti stage that he becomes wholly free all doubts about future life. The trouble is that people wish to inquire about it instead of practising vipassanā. Some seek the verdict of Western scientists and philosophers while others accept the teaching of those who are reputed to be Arahats with psychic powers. But the best thing is to seek the answer through vipassanā practice instead of relying on other people.

            At the stage of udayabbaya insight the yogī can clearly see how in the wake of the consciousness unit that has passed away there follows a new unit attached to a sense-object. On the basis of this experience he realizes how the new existence begins with consciousness-unit that arises, conditioned by attachment to an object at the moment of dying in a previous life.

            Before death the stream of consciousness depends on the physical body and is continuous with one unit following the other uninterruptedly. After death the body disintegrates and the stream of consciousness shifts to the physical process in another abode. This may be likened to the continuous appearance of light in an electric bulb through the ceaseless generation of electricity. When the bulb is burnt up, the light goes out but the potential electric energy keeps on coming. Light reappears when the old bulb is replace with a new one. Here the bulb, energy and light are all changing physical processes and we should be mindful of their impermanent character.

            The commentary cites the analogies of echo, flame, impression of a seal and reflection in the mirror. Echo is reflection or repetition of a sound produced by the impact of sound waves on walls, woods, etc. But it does not mean the transfer of the original sound to a distant place although we cannot deny the causal relation between the sound and the echo either. When you look at a mirror your face is reflected on it but you must not confuse the reflection with your face although it is causally related to the latter. A lamp which is burning may be used to light up another lamp. The flame of the new lamp is obviously not the flame of the old lamp since the latter is still burning but neither is it causally unrelated to the flame of the old lamp. Lastly the seal leaves an impression that is like its face but it is not the face and it cannot occur in the absence of the seal either.

            These analogies help to throw some light on the nature of rebirth process. When a person is dying, his kamma, the signs and visions related to it and visions of the future life appear. After his death there arises the rebirth consciousness conditioned by one of these visions at the last moment of the previous existence. So rebirth does not mean the passage of the last unit of consciousness to another life but since it is conditioned by the visions on death-bed, it is rooted in avijjā. Saṅkhāra, etc., that from the links in the chain of causation to the visions of the dying person.

            Thus rebirth consciousness is not the consciousness of the dying person but it is causally related to the previous life. Two consecutive units of consciousness are separate but given the stream to consciousness, we speak of the same individual for the whole day, the whole year or the whole lifetime. Likewise we speak of the last consciousness on death-bed together with rebirth consciousness as representing a single person. A man's attainment of deva or any other world is to be understood in the same sense. It does not mean the transfer of nāma-rūpa as a whole. We speak of a man or a person only because the rebirth concerns the stream of causally related mental units.

            So it is ucchedadiṭṭhi to believe that a person has nothing to do with a previous life since every person is annihilated on death. Most every person is annihilated on death. Most Buddhists are free from this belief. As the two consecutive lives are causally related, we speak of one person in conventional terms. But we must guard ourselves against the sassata view that rebirth means the transfer of the ego to a new abode.

            The yogī who has mature vipassanā insight does not harbour the two beliefs because he is fully aware of the rising and passing away of mental units in the present life and their causal relations. This awareness leaves no room for the illusions of personal immortality or annihilation. The nature of consciousness is evident even to those who think objectively. Joy may be followed by dejection and vice versa or a serene mind may give way to irritation and vice versa. These changing states may be associated through similarity, as for example, the intention to do a certain thing at night may occur again in the morning. The mental states do not differ but are causally related to one another. Those who understand this relation between the two mental elements that are separated only by death.


            Consciousness in the new existence is of two kinds, viz., rebirth consciousness and the consciousness, that occurs during the whole life. There are altogether 19 kinds of rebirth consciousness, one in the lower worlds, nine in the sensual worlds of human beings and devas, five in rūpa-brahma worlds of human beings and devas, five in rūpa-brahma world and four in arūpa-brahma worlds. As for the others that occur during the rest of life, they number thirty-two as resultant mental states (vipāka-viññāṇa). These enumerations will be intelligible only to those who have studied Abhidhammā.

            To a dying person there appears the flashbacks of what he has done in life (kamma), the surrounding conditions associated with his kammic acts (kammanimitta) and the visions of his future life (gatinimitta). Kamma may assume the form of a flashback about the past or the hallucination about the present. A fisherman on his death-bed may talk as if he were catching fish or a man who has given much alm may think in his last hours that he is doing dāna. Many years ago I led a group of pilgrims from Shwebo to visit pagodas in Mandalay and Yangon. An old man in the group died shortly after our return to Shwebo. He died muttering the words that were reminiscent of his experience during the pilgrimage.

            The dying man also has visions of the environment in which kammic deeds were done such as robes, monasteries, bhikkhus, Buddha images, etc., in connection with his acts of dāna or weapons, places, victims in case of the murder he has committed.

            Then he sees visions of what he will find in his afterlife. For example, he will see hellfire, hell-guards, etc if he is bound to land in hell, devas, mansions, etc if he is to pass on to deva-worlds and so forth. Once a dying brahmin was told by his friends that the visions of the flames which he saw indicated the brahma world. He believed them and died only to find himself in hell. False beliefs are indeed dangerous. It is said that some people tell their dying friends to visualize their acts of killing a cow for dāna, believing that such acts are beneficial.


            In the time of the Buddha there were in Sāvatthi city five hundred upāsakās each with 500 followers. They all practised the dhamma. The eldest of them, Mahādhammika, the head of all upāsakās had seven sons and seven daughters who also lived up to the teaching of the Buddha. As he grew old, he became sick and weak. He invited the Bhikkhus to his house and while attending their recitation of the dhamma, he saw the celestial chariot arriving to take him to the deva-world. He said to the devas, "Please wait".

            The bhikkhus stopped reciting as they thought that the dying man had told them to do so. His sons and daughters cried, believing that he was babbling for fear of death. After the bhikkhus, departure he came round, told the people around him to throw a garland of flowers up into the air. They did as they were told and lo! the garland remained hanging in the air. The upāsakā said that the garland indicated the position of the chariot from Tusita heaven, and after advising his daughters and sons to do good deeds like him for rebirth in the deva world, he died and landed in Tusita. This is how the vision of deva-world appears to the good man on his death-bed. A layman in Mawlamyaing said just before he died that he saw a very good pucca building. This too may be a vision of the deva-world. Some dying persons who are to be reborn as human beings have visions of their would-be parents, residence and so forth. A Sayādaw in Mawlamyaing, was killed by robbers. Three years later a child from Myeik came to Mawlamyaing and identified by name the Sayādaws with whom he said he had lived together in his previous life. He said that the robbers stabbed him when they did not get the money, that he ran away to the jetty where he got into a boat, reached Myeik and dwelt in the home of his parents. The flight, journey by boat, etc., were perhaps visions of the Sayādaw's afterlife.

            Flashbacks of kammic acts and visions of a future life occur even in cases of instant death. According to the commentary, they occur even when a fly on a bar of iron is crushed to pieces with a hammer. Today there are nuclear weapons that can reduce a big city to ashes in a moment. From the Buddhist point of view, these weapons have appeared because of the evil kamma of their potential victims. Those who are killed by these bombs also see the flashbacks and visions. This may sound incredible to those who do not know the mechanism of the mind thoroughly but it presents no difficulty to the yogī who contemplates the nāma-rūpa in action. For it is said in the scriptures that units of consciousness arise and pass away by the billions in the twinkling of an eye. The yogī who has attained udayabbaya insight knows empirically that hundreds of mental units arise and dissolve in a moment. So he has no doubt about the possibility of consciousness centering on flashbacks and visions in those who meet violent and instant death.

            Consciousness is always focussed on objects. We often recall what we have done and think of the deva world or the human society. If a man who has done good deeds die with these thoughts, he will be reborn as a deva or a human being. The objects of these thoughts on death-bed are called gatinimitta, visions of objects associated with kamma are called kammanimitta.

            References to these death-bed phenomena are to be found not only in the commentaries but also in the Pāḷi piṭaka. In the Bālapaṇḍita and other suttas the Buddha speaks of the death-bed memories of good or bad deeds and likens them to the shadows of a mountain dominating the plains in the evening. It is impossible to remove them. Once I saw a dying woman who showed great fear as if she were face to face with an enemy who was out to treat her cruelly. She was speechless and her relatives tried to comfort her but it was in vain. Perhaps she was having a foretaste of her unhappy future as a result of evil kamma.

            So it is necessary to do good kamma that will produce mental images of objects and persons associated with it and visions of a good afterlife at the moment of dying. If the good deed is rational, strongly motivated and one of the eight kinds of good deeds in sensual sphere, the resultant consciousness is one of the four kinds of rational viññāṇa. Rebirth is then associated with amoha (non-ignorance) and as such it takes place with three root-conditions (hetu) viz., amoha, adosa (non-aggressiveness) and alobba (non-craving). A person reborn with these innate tendencies can attain jhāna and psychic powers if he practises samatha and can attain the holy path and Nibbāna if he devotes himself to vipassanā. Good acts that are motivated by the desire for Nibbāna lead to such good rebirth and finally to the path and Nibbāna through contemplation or hearing a sermon.

            If the motivation is weak or if it is a good but unenlightened deed, that is, a good deed divorced from the belief in kamma, the result is one of the four kinds of unenlightened (moha-vipāka) consciousness. The rebirth is then devoid of amoha (non-ignorance), there being only the other root-conditions, viz., alobha and adosa. It is termed dvehetupatisandhika. A man reborn in this way cannot attain jhāna or the Path as he lacks the innate intelligence for it. If the good deed is unenlightened and half-hearted, the result will be good rebirth consciousness without any good predispositions. The person concerned is likely to have defective eyes, ears, etc.

            So when you do a good deed you should do it with zeal and with Nibbāna as your objective. If you set your heart on Nibbāna, the good deed will lead you to it and the zeal with which you do it will ensure rebirth with good predispositions. It is not necessary to pray for such noble rebirth because you are assured of it if you do good deeds intelligently and zealously. But if you lack zeal in doing good, yours will be a rebirth with only alobha and adosa.

            Some people say that dāna and sīla mean good kamma-formations (puññābhisaṅkhāra) which being rooted in ignorance lead to rebirth and samsāric suffering. This is a mistaken view that stems from ignorance. If the practice of dāna and sīla is motivated by the desire for Nibbāna, it will ensure the noblest rebirth and lead to the supreme goal. It was due to dāna and sīla that Sāriputtra and other disciples of the Buddha finally attained Nibbāna. The same may be said of paccekabuddhas.

            The bodhisatta, too, attained supreme enlightenment in the same way by praying that his good deeds contribute to the attainment of omniscience (sabbaññutañana). Here rebirth with three good predispositions, viz., amoha, adosa and alobha involved in the genesis of Buddhahood is of two kinds, viz., consciousness associated with joy (somanassa) and consciousness associated with equanimity (upekkhā). Again each of these two viññāṇas is of two kinds, viz., asaṅkhārika (spontaneous) and sasaṅkhārika (non-spontaneous). The bodhisatta's rebirth consciousness was powerful, zealous asaṅkhārika.

            According to ancient commentaries, it was somanassa consciousness. For the bodhisatta wanted very much to promote the welfare of all living beings. He had infinite mettā (good-will or loving kindness) for them. A strong-willed mettā is usually coupled with somanassa and hence the bodhisatta's rebirth consciousness was tinged with joy.

            But Mahāsiva thera suggested upekkhā as its (bodhisatta's rebirth) concomitant. In his view the bodhisatta's mind was firm and profound, thereby making equanimity rather than joy the characteristic of his rebirth consciousness. In any event this rebirth viññāṇa had its origin in his good deed that was motivated by the desire for supreme enlightenment. Thus although the enlightened good kamma-formation (saṅkhāra) leads to rebirth, it does not prolong samsāric existence; on the contrary it contributes to liberation form the life-cycle.

            Consciousness of any kind, whether it be rebirth consciousness or otherwise, is a matter of very short duration. It has only three points of time, viz., arising (upāda), being (thi) and passing away (bhaṅga). According to the commentaries, these mental units arise and pass away by the millions in the twinkling of an eye. The moment of each unit is so short that it does not last even the millionth part of a second.

            After the cessation of rebirth-consciousness there follows the stream of subconsciousness (bhavaṅga) which flows ceaselessly unless it is interrupted by a different kind of consciousness called vīthi, that is the kind of mental activity involved in seeing, hearing, and so forth. The stream of bhavaṅga lasts as long as there is life, its mainspring being saṅkhāra as in the case of rebirth consciousness. Its duration, too, depends mainly on saṅkhāra or kamma. Its duration, too, depends mainly on saṅkhāra or kamma. It may be like a stone thrown into the air. The stone will travel a long way if the hand which throws it is strong but it will not go very far if the hand is weak. The force of kamma may also be compared to the initial velocity of the bullet, rocket and so forth. Death means the dissolution of the consciousness that is born of the same kammic force. Hence the initial rebirth consciousness, the stream of subconsciousness and the last dying (cuti) consciousness of an existence comprise the mental life that is wholly rooted in past kamma.

            Also due to kamma or saṅkhāra are the five kinds of vīthi consciousness, viz, those involved in seeing, hearing, smelling, eating and touching as well as the mental unit that focuses on the sense-objects, the consciousness that reflects (santirana-citta) and the consciousness that registers (tadarammana-citta) the objects of impulse-moments (javana). These have their roots in original kamma that leads to rebirth or other kinds of kamma.

            The Abhidhamma piṭaka attributes all kinds of consciousness, including wholesome, unwholesome and non-kammic or kiriya-citta to saṅkhāra. This view is reasonable since the kiriya-cittas, too, evolve from the bhavaṅga-citta that is rooted in saṅkhāra. But the doctrine of Paticcasamuppāda specifically describes the three rounds (vaṭṭa) of defilements, kamma, kammic results and their cause-and-effect relationships. So it ascribes to saṅkhāra only the 32 types of mundane resultant cittas that stem from kamma vaṭṭa. Of these 32 cittas we have described 19 cittas that comprise rebirth, sub-conscious state and death of the other cittas. Of the other cittas some are wholesome according to the saṅkhāra.

         In the dotrine to Paticcasamuppāda the first two factors i.e., avijjā and saṅkhāra are described as the causes in the past life, viññāṇa, nāmarūpa, phassa and vedanā as the consequences in the present life; taṇhā, upādāna and bhava as the causes in the present life and jāti and jarāmaraṇa (old age and death) as the consequences that will occur in the future life.


            The doctrine says that viññāṇa gives rise to nāma-rūpa. This means that with the arising of rebirth consciousness there also arise mind and body. Rebirth consciousness is invariably coupled with feeling (vedānā), perception (saññā) contact (phassa), volition (cetanā), mental advertence (manasikāra) and other elements of mind relating to the objects of death-bed visions of a person. Every citta is bound up with these mental elements. The high (tihetu) rebirth of some Brahmās, deva and human beings also, involve the three noble predispositions, of alobha, adosa, and amoha; some devas and human beings have only alobha and adosa while the earth-bound devas and human beings with defective organs are totally devoid of noble predispositions. Their rebirth is good ahetu-rebirth as distinct from the evil ahetu-rebirth of the denizens of the lower worlds who are also devoid of good inborn tendencies.

            Rebirth may assume one of the three forms: rebirth in the mother's womb, rebirth generated in putridity (samsedaja) and rebirth as sudden and spontaneous emergence of the full-fledged physical body (opapātikā). Rebirth in the mother's womb is of two kinds, viz., viviparous as in the case of human beings and quadrupeds emerging from the wombs with umbilical cords and oviparous as in the case of birds coming out of egg. These living being may differ in origin as they do in size and gestation or incubation period. We will leave it at that and now go on with the human rebirth as described in the commentaries.

            With the arising of rebirth consciousness there occur simultaneously three kammajā-rūpakalāpas or thirty rūpas. These are rūpas that have their origin in kamma, viz., ten kāyarūpas, ten bhava-rūpas and ten vatthu rūpas. The nine rūpas, to wit, the solid, fluid, heat, motion, colour, smell, taste, nutriment and life together with the kāyapasāda (body-essence) rūpa form the ten kāyarūpas; bhava-rūpa and the solid, etc form the group of ten Bhavarūpas. Bhavārūpa means two germinal rūpas, one for manhood and the other for womanhood. With the maturation of these rūpas the mental and physical characteristics of man and woman become differentiated, as is evident in the case of those who have undergone sex changes.

            In the time of the Buddha, Soreyya, the son of a merchant, instantly turned into a woman for having wronged Mahākaccayana thera. All masculine features disappeared and gave way to those of the fair sex. He even gave birth to two children. It was only when he begged for forgiveness that he again became a man. Later on he joined the holy order and died as an Arahat. It is somewhat like the case of a man who develops canine mentality after having been bitten by a rabid dog. The sex freak who is neither a male nor a female has no bhavarūpa. He has only ten kāyarūpas and ten vatthu rūpas. Vatthu rūpas are the physical bases of rebirth, subconscious, death and other cittas. So at the moment of conception there is already the physical basis for rebirth consciousness. The three kalāpas or thirty rūpas form the kalāla which, according to ancient Buddhist books, mark the beginning of life.

            This embryonic rūpa has the size of a little drop of butter-oil scum on a fine woollen thread. It is so small that it is invisible to the naked eye. It does not exist by itself. We should assume that it arises from the fusion of the semen (sukka) and blood (sanita) of the parents. If we reject this view, it will be hard to explain the child's resemblance to his parents in physical appearance. It is also said in the suttas that the physical body is the product of the four primary elements and the parent's semen. Moreover, the piṭaka specifies three conditions necessary for conception, viz., the parent's intercourse, the menstrual discharge of the mother and the presence of something qualified to become an embryo. Thus it is clear that according to the scriptures, the embryonic kalāla has its origin in the fusion of parent's semen and blood.

            The semen and blood dissociated from the parents are utuja (temperature-based) rūpa but it is quite possible for utuja-rūpa to assimilate kammaja (kamma-based) rūpa. Modern doctors excise a lump of unhealthy tissue from the human body and replace it with healthy tissue. The graft is utujarūpa when cut out from the body but as it becomes one whole with the natural tissues there appears kāyapasāda or kammajarūpa. There are also cases of transplanting a goat's intestine or a human eye in place of diseased organs. No doubt these transplants develop kammajarūpas in the form of kāyapasāda and cakkhupasāda. Likewise, we should assume that the three kammaja kalāpas are fused with utujarūpas of semen and blood detached from parents.

            According to Western biologists, it is the fusion of the mother's ovum and the father's spermatozoa that gradually develops and becomes a child. The original embryo is so small that it cannot be seen with the naked eye. The findings of these scientists fairly agree with what the Buddhist books say about conception. Without the help of microscope or other instruments but purely by means of his intellect the Buddha knew how life begins with three kalāpas or thirty rūpas as kalāla on the basis of parents' semen and blood. This was the Buddha's teaching 2500 years ago and it was only during the last 300 years that Western scientists discovered the facts about conception after long investigation with microscopes. Their discoveries bear testimony to the Buddha's infinite intelligence. However, they are as yet unable to reveal the genesis of thirty rūpas probably because the extremely subtle kammajarūpas defy microscopic investigation.

            Thus the cetasika and kammajarūpa are the nāmarūpas born of rebirth consciousness. The kammajarūpas are renewed at every thought-moment as are the utujarūpas due to heat. From the arising of the first bhavaṅga-citta there also occur cittajarūpa (consciousness-based rūpas) at the moment of the arising of cittas. But cittas which make us barely aware of seeing, etc. cannot cause rūpa. So cittajarūpas do not arise at the moment of the arising of the bare cittas. Thus with the arising of the rebirth. citta, there develop in due course all other kinds of citta, that is, cetasikas, e.g., feeling, etc., as well as all kinds of rūpa, to wit, kammaja, utuja and cittaja rūpas. After a week the kalāla becomes turbid froth (abbuda) which turns into a lump of flesh after a week. This hardens into ghāna in another week and in the fifth week there develops pasākha with four knobs for hands and legs and one big knob for head.

            The Buddhist books do not describe in detail the development after the fifth week but say that after 77 days the four pasādarūpas for seeing, hearing, smelling, and tasting appear as do the ahāra rūpas, the product of the nutriment in the mother's body. It is also said that the embryo has toe-nails, finger-nails, etc. The books do not go into further details as it is not necessary for the yogīs to know them. Such knowledge is beneficial only to doctors.


            For heavenly beings like catumahārāja and others, as soon as the rebirth-citta arises, there also arise 70 rūpas or seven different kalāpas, viz., cakkhu, sota, ghāna, jīva, kāyabhava and vatthudasaka. Kalāpas of the same kind are innumerable according to the size of the deva's eyes, ears, etc. There are no dasaka kalāpas, that is, ghāna, jīva, kāya and bhava in the three first jhānic abodes, the three second jhānic abodes, the three third jhānic abodes, the vehapphala and suddhavasa abodes. The three dasakarūpakalāpas (cakkhu, sota and vatthudasaka) and one navakakalāpa or total of four different kalāpas or 39 rūpas arise simultaneously with rebirth-citta. Of these four kalāpas, jīvitanavakakalāpa takes on the nature of kāyadasaka. The body of the Brahma is pervaded by jīvita and nine rūpas as is the deva' body by kāyadasakakalāpa. Asaññāsatta Brahmas have no citta from the moment of rebirth. They have only jīvitanavakakalāpa which assume Brahmanic form. Being devoid of citta and cittajarūpa, such a Brahma knows nothing and makes no movement. He is like a wooden statue. More wonderful than these Brahmas are arūpa Brahmas who having no rūpa live in arūpa (immaterial) worlds for thousands of world-systems through the successive renewal of mind and its elements. These accounts do not admit of scientific investigation and they concern only the Buddha and holy men with psychic powers.

            The denizens of hell and the petas who are forever burning and starving cannot be conceived in wombs nor can they arise from putrid matter. Because of their evil kamma they come into being by materialization. Like the afore mentioned devas they develop seven kalāpas or 70 rūpas simultaneously. They usually do not have defective vision, hearing, etc since they are doomed to suffering through sense-contact with evil objects.


            As the sansesaja beings are said to have their origin in putrid matter, they are likely to develop gradually. But the Buddhist books refer to their full-fledged materialization if they do not have defective vision, etc. We cannot say which is true, development or materialization, as the kammajarūpas cannot be subjected to scientific inquiry and so for the time being it is better to accept the view as stated in the scriptures. The development of kammaja and other rūpas in sansedaja and upapata rebirths are generally like that in gabbha-seyyaka (womb) rebirth. The only difference is that in the case of the former beings, āhāraja-rūpas arise from the time they eat food or swallow their saliva.


            Vīthi-cittas differ in kind from bhavaṅga-cittas. Bhavaṅga-citta resembles rebirth-citta in respect of objects and process. It is the stream of consciousness that follows rebirth-citta, having its root in kamma. It is focused on one of the three objects, viz., kamma, kammanimitta or gatinimitta of the previous existence. It is not concerned with the objects in present life. It is the kind of mental state that we have when sound asleep. But there occur certain changes when we see, hear, smell, eat, have bodily contact or think and these changes in mental phenomena are called six vīthi-cittas.

            Suppose the visual form is reflected on the sensitive rūpa of the eye (cakkhupasāda). These rūpas each lasting only 17 thought-moments are renewed ceaselessly together with the visual objects and their mental images. A group of eye-rūpas and a group of visual objects occur simultaneously. But a rūpa is not powerful at the moment of arising and so there is no contact between the eye and its object during the moment of bhavaṅga-citta. In other words, there is no reflection of the visual object on the eye. The bhavaṅga that passes away before such reflection is called atitabhavaṅga. Then another bhavaṅga-citta arises and reflection occurs. As a result the bhavaṅga-citta is disrupted. Its attentiveness to its accustomed object wanes and it begins to consider the visual object. This is termed bhavaṅgacalana or bhavaṅga in motion. Then another bhavaṅga takes its place but it is so weak that with its cessation, the bhavaṅgha stream is cut off. The mind becomes curious about the visual form that the eye sees. This inquiring mind is called avajjana-citta and there are five kinds of such cittas corresponding to five sense-organs. There follows the eye-consciousness and after its cessation there arises the citta which receives and attends to the visual object.

            Bhavaṅga is the resultant citta that stems from saṅkhāra, as are eye-citta and the receiving citta. They are called vipāka (resultant) cittas. There are two kinds of vipāka-cittas, viz., good and bad according to good and bad saṅkhāra. On the other hand avajjana-citta (mental advertence) is ethically neither good nor bad; it is not a vipāka-citta either. It is termed kiriya-citta which means mere action without any kammic effect, the kind of citta that is usually attributed to Arahats.

            After the mind has received the visual object, it inquires about its quality, whether it is good, bad etc., (santirana-citta). Then there follows decision (vuttho-citta), that it is good etc. This leads to javana which means seven impulse moments flashing seven times in succession. Javana occurs very quickly. It has speed and impetus that are absent in other factors of the consciousness process. It is associated with powerful mental factors which may be good or bad such as lobha or alobha. No wonder that evil minds rush towards their objects speedily. Thus greed makes us inclined to scramble for the desired object and seize it by force, and anger arouses in us the desire to rush and destroy its object blindly. Doubt, restlessness and ignorance, too, speedily associate themselves with their respective objects. The same may be said of good mental factors. Because of their frantic and impulsive nature the sensual desires are also called kāma javana. After the seven impulse moments there follow two tadārammanacitta moments. This citta is concerned with the object of javana and thus its function is to fulfil the lingering desire of its predecessor.

            In the consciousness process the eye-viññāṇa is dependent on eye-organ (cakkhu-pasāda) that arises together with atitabhavaṅga. Other viññāṇas are dependent on the heart (hadaya-vatthu) rūpa that arises along with other cittas. The 14 cittas from avajjana to the second tadārammana are focused only on present objects. So these 14 cittas are vīthi-cittas that differ in kind from bhavaṅga-cittas. In other words, they are active cittas. After the cessation of second tadāram-mana-citta that marks the end of the consciousness process the mental life reverts to the sub-consciousness (bhavaṅga) state that is something like sleep.

            An analogy may throw some light on the process (vīthi) of consciousness. A man is sleeping under a mango tree. A mango falls and he wakes up. Picking up the fruit, the man examines it. He smells it and knowing that it is ripe, he eats it. Then he thinks over its taste and falls asleep again. Here the bhavaṅga state with kamma, kamma-nimitta and gati nimitta as its objects is like the state of being asleep. Waking up with a start due to the fall of the mango may be like the rising and passing away of bhavaṅga-citta. reflection after awaking is avajjana. Seeing the visual object is seeing the fruit. Santirana-citta is involved when the man examines the fruit. To conclude that it is ripe is vuttho-citta. Javana is like eating the fruit and tadārammana is like thinking over its taste. Reverting to bhavaṅga state is like falling asleep again.

            If the visible object is not very clear, it appears on the eye-organ after the arising of atitabhavaṅga twice or thrice. In case of such objects the vīthi process does not last till the emergence of tadārammana but ends in javana and sinks into bhavaṅga state.

            If the visible object is still weaker, it is reflected only after the arising of atitabhavaṅga from five to nine times. The vīthi process does not reach javana but ends after vuttho arises twice or thrice. The vīthi that thus ends in vuttho is of great importance in the practice of vipassanā. For the yogī who practises constant mindfulness does not seek or attend to defiling sense-objects. So reflection is slow, avajjana is weak, eye-consciousness is not clear, reception is not proper, inquiry is not effective and decision is indefinite. So after reflecting twice or thrice the mind relapses into bhavaṅga state. The object is not clear enough to defile the mind and the yogī becomes aware of anicca, dukkha and anatta of the phenomena. There is only bare awareness of seeing and the vīthi process is wholly free from defilements.

            The vīthi process that we have outlined above for the eye equally applies to the ear, nose, tongue and body.


            The mind vīthi is of three kinds according to the javana involved, viz., kamma javana, jhānajavana and maggaphalajavana. Here what matters is vīthi with kammajavana. While the bhavaṅga stream is flowing, there appear mental images of the sense-objects that one has experienced or sometimes those which one has not experienced. Then bhavaṅga is disturbed and next time it is cut off. This is followed by reflection which is somewhat like vuttho (decision) in the five sense organs. Like vuttho, reflection (avajjana) leads to javana, giving rise to agreeable or disagreeable emotions such as fear, anger, confusion, devotion, awe, pity and so forth. The impulses arising at the five sense-organs are weak and they neither leads to good or bad rebirth nor produces much other effects. But the impulses in the mind are potent enough to determine the quality of rebirth and all other kammic results. So it is necessary to guard and control these impulses. After seven impulse-moments followed by two tadārammāna-moments the mind sinks into bhavaṅga state.

            Thus the vīthi process at manodvāra involves one avajjana-moment, seven javana-moments and two tadārammana-moments. In the case of dim and indistinct objects the mind skip tadārammana, passes through javana and reverts to bhavaṅga. If the object is very weak, the mind does not attain even javana but has two or three avajjana-moments. This is natural, if we bear in mind the way we have to focus on mind-objects in vipassanā practice. The only resultant citta in this manovīthi is tadārammana, the other two being kiriyacitta, the citta that does not stem from saṅkhāra.

🔗 FOLLOW-UP vīthi

            The mind-vīthi may involve the review of the sense-objects after rising from bhavaṅga state in the wake of the vīthi rooted in the respective sense-organs. Up to this vīthi the mind has as its object only rūpa in its ultimate sense (paramattharūpa). It is not concerned with the conventional modes of usage, e.g. man, woman, etc. So at this moment the yogī is not misled by appearances for he is aware of ultimate reality. He should try to contemplate immediately after seeing, etc. We therefore stress the importance of immediate and present moment as the yogī's focus of attention.

            If after this kind of manovīthi the yogī is unmindful, there arises another manovīthi in connection with the visual object, etc. Then the sense-object becomes a specific object of attention in terms of conventional shape and form. This vīthi is open to strong but unwholesome impulses. It gives way to another manovīthi where the attention is focused on conventional designations such ask man, woman, etc, thereby making it more susceptible to stronger evil impulses.

            In the face of a strange, unfamiliar object, the vīthi-process involves three stages, viz., seeing, reflection and cognizance of the form and substance in conventional terms. The vīthi stops short of cognizing the conventional names. In the case of vīthi that arises in connection with a conventional term it involves hearing, reflection cognizance of the conventional term and awareness of the relevant form and substance.


            Because of rebirth consciousness there arise mental phenomena associated with it such as feeling, remembering, perception, reflection, etc together with the three kalāpas or thirty rūpas. After the cessation of rebirth consciousness cetasikas (mental factors) arise in the wake of every activity of viññāṇa and so do rūpas conditioned by citta, kamma, utu (heat) and āhāra (nutriment).

            There is no doubt about the close connection between citta and cetasika. When citta is active we feel, we remember, we think, there arise greed, anger, faith and so forth. Equally obvious are the physical phenomena that stem from cittas. We stand, sit, go or do anything that we wish to do. According to the commentary, this obvious fact gives ground for our knowledge that the rebirth consciousness at the moment of conception leads to the three kalāpas or thirty rūpas. In fact the arising of rebirth consciousness and rūpa at the moment of conception takes place in a split second and as such it is invisible even to the divine eye. The divine eye may see what happens shortly before death and after rebirth but it is only the Buddha's omniscience that sees death-citta and rebirth-citta directly. But from what we know about the cause of physical phenomena, we can infer the arising of rūpa from the rebirth-citta at the moment of conception.

            Some physical phenomena have their origin not in citta but in kamma, utu (heat) and material food but without citta they will have no life. A corpse is lifeless although it is composed of utujarūpas. It is because of the contribution of citta that the rūpas based on kamma, utu and nutriment exist and form a continuous stream of life. Once death supervenes, cutting off the stream of consciousness, the cetasikas and living rūpas cease to exist. Hence the teaching that nāmarūpa is conditioned of viññāṇa.

            Because of saṅkhāra (good or bad kamma) there is an uninterrupted flow of viññāṇa in the new existence. Coupled with every citta is nāmarūpa which arises ceaselessly. The duration of nāmarūpa depends on citta. If citta lasts an hour, so does nāmarūpa. If the stream of citta. flows for 100 years, we say that the life of nāmarūpa is 100 years. In short, we should understand that life is only the continuum of ceaseless causal relationships between nāmarūpa and viññāṇa.

            To sum up what we have said so far. Avijjā causes saṅkhāra. Because of the ignorance of the four noble truths people exert effort (saṅkhāra) to be happy. They think that they will be happy if they get what they want. But the objects of their desire are impermanent and so they lead to suffering. Not knowing the truth about dukkha, they think, speak and do things for their welfare in the present life and hereafter. These kammic actions lead to rebirth consciousness in the lower or the higher worlds. Beginning with this rebirth consciousness there is a stream of citta that flows continuously until death and the nature of this mental life is determined by kamma. The physical body too is conditioned by kamma as well as by citta, utu (heat) and nutriment.

            The physical phenomena as conditioned by citta are obvious for all our bodily and verbal actions such as moving, speaking, etc., are rooted in citta. The yogī has to practise mindfulness on the basis of these cittajarūpas and it is important to know them empirically for himself. Hence the Buddha's teaching in Mahāsatipatthāna sutta; "The bhikkhu knows that he walks when he walks and that he stands when he stands." According to the commentary, if we know experientially the dependence of cittajarūpa on citta, we can know by inference the contribution of viññāṇa to kammajarūpa, cittajarūpa, utujarūpa and āhārajarūpa. Hence the teaching of Paticcasamuppāda: Conditioned by viññāṇa, there arises nāmarūpa.

            The yogī cannot know empirically the rebirth-citta or for that matter any other citta in the past in its ultimate sense. All that he can know is the reality about consciousness as it is functioning at present and he can know this only if he is always mindful. If he focuses on present viññāṇa, he comes to know nāmarūpa fairly well. For if he notes "seeing, seeing" and knows the eye-consciousness, he also knows the nāmarūpa that is bound up with it. Here by eye-consciousness we mean not only the eye-viññāṇa but the whole mental process of seeing (cakkhudvāra-vīthi). The yogī notes it as a whole and not by piecemeal. Moreover, the vīthi appears to the yogī as a single unit of consciousness. This way of introspection is in accord with Patisambhidāmagga which says: "The citta that focuses on rūpa arises and passes away. The yogī then contemplates the dissolution of the citta that has watched the dissolution of the rūpa."

            In other words, when the rūpa is manifest, the citta watches it; but since the citta has attained bhaṅga insight, it too sees impermanence in the rūpa and dissolves away. The dissolving vipassāna citta itself becomes the object of contemplation. This vipassāna citta is not a simple citta; it is composed of at least avajjāna and seven impulse moments. But these eight cittas cannot be watched one by one; the whole vīthi is to be the object of attention.

            Here the eye-consciousness means the whole mental process (vīthi) of seeing and it includes good or bad kamma and impulses. So attentiveness to it leads to awareness of vedanā (feeling) saññā (perception) phassa (contact) manasikāra (reflection) cetanā (volition) and so forth. But cetanā is more apparent in connection with thinking. Thus it comes into full play when at night we think of what we have to do the next day. It urges and agitates us and its function is unmistakable. The yogī who constantly watches his nāmarūpa is aware of cetanā in action whenever he speaks or moves any part of his body. For example, if, while practising mindfulness, you feel an itch, you wish to get rid of it. You note the desire and you feel as if you are being urged to remove the itch. It is cetanā which urges you to do and so it is manifest in your everyday action, speech and thinking.

            In short, if you know the eye-consciousness through contemplation, you know the nāma (mental) khandhās that are born of it as well as the rūpas of the whole body that form its basis. This is in accordance with the teaching; "From viññāṇa there arises nāmarūpa."

            The same may be said of the consciousness in connection with hearing, etc., awareness of viññāṇa means awareness of all the nāma and rūpa that are bound up with it. The awareness of contact is bases on pleasant and unpleasant sensations, when these sensations are manifest; it is based on contact when motion and rigidity are manifest; when you note the desire to bend the arm, you know the volition (cetanā) behind it.

            When you contemplate the viññāṇa which thinks, you know the nāmarūpa that is coupled with it. When you find yourself committing something to memory, you know saññā; when you note your intention to do or speak something, you become aware of cetanā; when you note your desire for something, you know that it is your lobha. When you note your irritation, you know that it is dosa; you know moha when you note your view of a being in terms of a permanent and happy individual. You know alobha when you know the lack of desire in you. Moreover, your intention to do or say something is followed by bodily behaviour or verbal expression and so through contemplation you become aware of viññāṇa-citta as the cause of rūpas in the body.

            Viññāṇa and nāmarūpa are interdependent. Just as viññāṇa gives rise to nāmarūpa, so also nāma-rūpa leads to viññāṇa. Nāmarūpa contributes to viññāṇa by way of simultaneous arising (sahajāta-paccaya), foundation (nissayapaccaya) and so forth. It is only through the contribution of all cetasikas collectively or the body (rūpa) as the physical basis, etc that viññāṇa comes into being.

            Mahāpadāna sutta tells us how the bodhisatta reflected on dependent origination just before he attained enlightenment. He found nāmarūpa, six bases of mental activity, impression, feeling, craving, clinging and becoming (bhava) to be the links in the chain of causation leading to old age and death. Then it occurs to him that nāmarūpa is conditioned by viññāṇa and vice-versa. The sutta ascribes this statement about the correlation between viññāṇa and nāmarūpa to Vipassi bodhisatta but we should understand that it is a fact discovered by all bodhisattas before they attained supreme enlightenment.

            Although viññāṇa and nāmarūpa are interdependent, the former is the determining factor and hence it is described as the cause of nāmarūpa. In fact, when viññāṇa arises because of saṅkhāra, its concomitant cetasikas as well as the rūpas resulting from saṅkhāra come into being at the same time. So viññāṇas and nāmarūpas arise together from the moment of rebirth. Moreover, viññāṇa and nāmarūpa include the six āyatanas (the six bases or sense-organs) as well as phassa (sense-contact) and vedanā (feeling). But since viññāṇa is the cause of nāmarūpa and nāmarūpa the cause of salāyatana and so forth, the Buddha says: Viññāṇa paccaya nāmarūpa, etc to distinguish between cause and effect. Likewise a verse in the Dhammapada describes the mind (mano or viññāṇa) as leading the cetasikas: manopubbaṅgamā dhammā; if a person acts or speaks with an evil mind, suffering follows him as a result, just as the wheels of a cart follow the ox which draws it.

            In point of fact citta and cetasikas arise together but because of its predominant role citta is described as leading the latter. If a man's mind is evil, he does evil deeds, utters evil words and harbours evil thoughts. These three kinds of kammas are saṅkhāras born of ignorance. They become potential for evil kammic effect. Every deed, speech or thought is accompanied by seven impulse-moments that flash forth several times. If the first impulse-moments are favourable, the kamma is productive in the present life; otherwise it becomes sterile. If one of the seven impulse-moments is favourable, it gives rise to kammic images or visions of afterlife on death-bed and produce kammic effect in the next life. Otherwise it is sterile. As for the other five impulse-moments, they produce kammic effect from the third existence till the last existence (the existence when Nibbāna is to be attained) under favourable circumstances. It becomes sterile only after the attainment of Nibbāna.

            Before the attainment of Nibbāna its potential remains intact for innumerable lifetimes, ready to bear fruit when circumstances permit. It bears fruit in terms of suffering, both mental and physical, in the lower worlds. If by virtue of good kamma the person is reborn in the human world, he will be dogged by evil kamma and suffer regardless of his station in life.


            The Dhammapada verse that we have referred to was uttered by the Buddha in connection with the story of Cakkhupāla thera. The thera was a physician in one of his previous lives. He cured a blind woman and restored her sight. The woman had promised to serve him as his slave should she recover her sight. But she did not keep her promise and lied that she was worse off than before. Seeing her trick, the physician gave her an eye-lotion that destroyed her eyes completely. For his evil kamma the man suffered in many lives and in his last existence he became Cakkhupāla thera. He practised meditation as instructed by the Buddha with 60 other monks at a forest retreat. He never lay down while meditating and soon he had an eye-infection. He refused to lie down to apply the eye-lotion and so the doctor gave up the attempt to cure him. Reminding himself of certain death, the thera redoubled his effort and at midnight he became blind and attained Arahatship.

            To an ordinary observer, the thera's blindness may appear to be the price that he had to pay for the over-exertion of his energy. But the main cause was the evil deed he had committed in his previous life as a doctor. Even if he had not practised meditation, he might have become blind somehow or other. But the attainment of Arahatship was an immense benefit that accrued to him from his overzeal and strenuous exertion.

            There are two lessons that we can learn from the story of Cakkhupāla thera. As an energetic monk, he continued to practise vipassanā after he became an Arahat. As he paced on the ground while meditating, the insects that lay in his path were trampled to death. When the matter was brought to the notice of the Buddha, the Lord said that since the thera had no intention to kill the insects, he was free from any moral responsibility for their destruction.

            So we should note that causing death without cetanā or volition is not a kammic act and that the body of an Arahat has weight if he has no psychic power or if despite his iddhi he walks without exercising it to control his weight. Some Buddhists have doubt about their moral purity when they cook vegetables or drink water that harbour microbes. They should of course remove living beings that they can see. But they need not have qualms about the destruction of creatures that may be accidentally connected with their actions. Some Jains are said to feel guilty over the death of insects that rush against a burning lamp. Theirs is an extreme view and cetanā (volition) as the keystone of moral problems in the context of kammic law is borne out by Moggaliputtatissa thera's verdict in his reply to king Asoka.


            When king Asoka supported the Buddha-dhamma lavishly, some heretics joined the Buddhist saṅgha for material benefits. The true bhikkhus refused to have anything to do with the bogus monks and for seven years the uposatha service fell into abeyance at the Asokarāma monastery in Pātaliputta city. So king Asoka sent a minister to see to it that the bhikkhus perform the uposatha service. But the bhikkhus refused to comply with the king's wish. They said that the uposatha service was to be performed only by the assembly of true bhikkhus. If there happened to be a morally impure monk in the assembly, he had to be admonished and penalized for any infraction of Vinaya rules. The Saṅgha held the service only when there was reason to believe in the purity of every member; and they did not meet for the service together with non-bhikkhus. If they did so, they would be guilty of a serious offence.

            The minister regarded this reply as defiance of the king's order and put the good monks to the sword. The king's younger brother, Tissa thera, escaped death because the minister recognized him just in time. On hearing the news the king was greatly shocked and he asked Moggaliputtatissa thera whether he was kammically responsible for the death of the bhikkhus. The thera asked him whether he had intended to have the monks killed. When the king replied that he had no such intention, the thera said that he was free from kammic responsibility. The thera gave this verdict on the basis of the Buddha's saying. "Cetanā (volitional act) is that which I call kamma." He also cited Titthira jātaka in which the bodhisatta who was then a rishi emphasized the primacy of cetanā in the operation of the kammic law.

            The story of Cakkhupāla thera also shows that an Arahat who has no psychic power has body-weight like ordinary people. This is evident in the death of insects that were trampled by the thera. During the last 15 years Myanmar has produced some holy men who are reputed to be Arahats. Some women have reportedly tested their holiness by having flowers or their hands trodden by the holy men's feet. It is said that the flowers were not crushed and the hands not hurt. But an Arahat who has no psychi power or who does not use it cannot avoid crushing a thing if he treads directly on it.

            The reliable test of arahatship is to see whether or not a person who claims or is credited with it has craving, love of pleasure, attachment, anger, depression, fear, anxiety, restlessness, the tendency to speak ill of others, the habit of laughing loudly, irreverence to the memory of the Buddha and so forth. If he has these moral weaknesses, he is certainly not free from greed, anger and ignorance. If a thorough inquiry does not reveal any sign of these weaknesses, we may assume that he possesses the admirable attributes of an Arahat or at least the qualities of a holy man who is close to arahatship.


            Just as an evil thought is followed by suffering, so also pure thought is followed by happiness. Those who think, speak and act with pure thought build up good kamma saṅkhāra. Good kammas invariably lead to happiness in the present life and hereafter. This was emphasized by the Buddha in the story of Maṭṭhakuṇḍali.

            Maṭṭhakuṇḍali was the son of a brahmin who never gave alms. When he became severely ill, his father left him to his fate as he did not want to spend any money for his cure. He removed his dying son outside the house to prevent those who came to inquire after the patient from seeing his possessions.

            On that very day at dawn the Buddha saw the dying boy with his divine eye. He knew how it would benefit many people spiritually if the boy saw him before his death. So while going round for the collection of food with other bhikkhus, the Lord passed by the brahmin's house. At the sight of the Lord the boy was filled with deep devotion and shortly after the Lord's departure he died and landed in Tavatimsa heaven.

            Reviewing his past, he saw how devotion to the Buddha had led him to the deva-world and he saw too, his father mourning at the cemetery. As he wished to teach his father a lesson, he came to the cemetery and posing as a boy who resembled Maṭṭhakuṇḍali, he started crying. Questioned by the old brahmin, he said that he needed a pair of wheels for his golden chariot and that he wanted the wheels to be made of the sun and the moon. The brahmin pointed out the futility of his desire but the boy said that the objects of his desire were visible whereas the brahmin was mourning for his dead son who could be seen no longer. He asked who was more foolish, he or the brahmin. This brought the brahmin to his senses. The deva revealed his identity and told him how adoration of the Buddha on his death-bed had benefitted him. He urged his father to seek refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Saṅgha and observe the five precepts.

            The brahmin invited the Buddha and the bhikkhus to morning meal at his house. There were present believers and non-believers alike at the feast. After the feast the brahmin asked the Lord whether there was anybody who had never heard the Dhamma, never offered food to the bhikkhus and never kept sabbath and yet attained the deva-world through his devotion to the Buddha. The Lord replied that there were many such people. At that moment Matthakundali deva arrived with his mansion. He told the Lord how his devotion on his death-bed had landed him in heaven. All the people were much impressed by the power of faith in the Buddha that had so immensely benefited the young man who did not care much for deeds before his death. Then the Buddha uttered the verse: Manopubbaṅgamā dhammā-that we have explained before.

            According to the Dhammapada commentary, the brahmin and the deva attained the first stage on the holy path after hearing the verse. It is worthy of note that it was just the mere thought about the Buddha that led to the young man's rebirth in the deva-world. He did not seem to have any hope or desire for Nibbāna. His rebirth as a deva was indeed devoid of intelligence but hearing a verse made him a sotāpanna. These two verses from Dhammapada echo the paticcasamuppada teaching that viññāṇa is conditioned by saṅkhāra. For the verses say that happiness or misery arises from kamma saṅkhāra. and in fact sukha or dukkha occurs together with viññāṇa. Again viññāṇa implies the associated mental factors and its physical basis viz., rūpa. Hence the teaching that viññāṇa conditions nāma-rūpa.


            Nāmarūpa conditions salhāyatana. This is very profound and hard to understand. Here nāma means the three cetasika khandhās while rūpa refers to the four primary elements, the six physical rūpas, jīvita (life), rūpa and nutriment (āhārarūpa).

            Nāmarūpa leads to salhāyatana or five physical sense-organs, viz., eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and consciousness. These āyatanas are the doors (avara) that lead to vīthi process. In the immaterial world every citta-unit throughout the whole life is born of associated cetasika. But for ordinary persons this will remain bookish knowledge as it is to be understood only by Ariyas in the immaterial world.

            Further, in any existence like human life that has both nāma and rūpa every vipāka-citta that arises from the time of conception is also due to associated cetasika, Vipāka citta means the kind of citta that barely sees, barely hears, etc., the pleasant or unpleasant objects. Here the seeing citta cannot arise by itself for it presupposes manasikāra that considers the visual object, phassa that contacts the object and cetanā that strives to see it. The seeing citta can arise, only when these concomitant cetasikas arises collectively at the same time. This is consciousness condition called sahajāta Paccaya in Pāḷi. Thus a load that can be raised only by four men working together will not move up if the team leader tries to move it alone. Like-wise, although viññāṇa is the mainspring of mental life it counts for little by itself. It can function only together with other mental factors.

            Moreover, these associate cetasikas contribute to the five physical āyatanas, viz., eye, ear, etc. by consciousness at the moment of rebirth. Of course at the time of conception there is only kāya or rūpa. But in other kinds of rebirth that do not involve the mother's womb, there may be all the five āyatanas at the beginning. The conditioning of the āyatanas by viññāṇa and cetasikas at the moment of conception is hard to understand but we have to accept on the authority of the Buddha. At other times vipāka as well as the non-vipāka cittas help to maintain the āyatanas. This is understandable since it is impossible for matter to exist without mind.


            The rebirth consciousness arises on the basis of the heart (hadaya-vatthu). The mind āyatana has its basis in the eye, ear, etc. Thought and consciousness too have heart as their physical basis. All the secondary physical phenomena such as the eye, visual object, etc., depend on the four primary elements, viz., pathavī, āpo (solidity, motion) etc., The five pasāda. rūpa, i.e. eye, ear, etc. are rooted in the primary elements, and their kamma-based rūpas in jīvita (life-force) rūpa. The five āyatana rūpas too depend on nutriment (āhāra-rūpa).

            To sum up, citta-viññāṇa is conditioned by at least three mental factors, viz., manasikāra, phassa and cetanā. Sometimes there arise repeatedly greed, craving, anger, illusion, pride, doubt, restlessness, worry, envy, ill-will, anxiety, fear and so forth. All these mental states arise because of unwholesome cetasikas. similarly there often occur faith, piety, moral sense, non-attachment, compassion, sympathetic joy (muditā) appreciation of the law of kamma, reflection on anicca, dukkha, anattā, and so forth. These mental states arise from wholesome cetasiksa. Thus the yogī realizes the dependence of viññāṇa on wholesome or unwholesome cetasikas, the eye-consciousness on the eye. So it is clear that the manāyatana is dependent on nāmarūpa.

            The mind is also vital to the existence of living matter. So the five āyatanas that produce sense-organs are dependent on the mind. The sensitive sense-organs (pasāda) cannot exist without their gross physical bases just as the reflecting mirror cannot exist without the gross matter of glass. So the eye presupposes the gross matter of solidity (pathavī), cohesion (āpo) heat (tejo) and tenseness (vāyo), in short, the ability to see depends on the gross physical body of the eye. The same may be said of the ability to hear, the ability to smell, ets. Further, we can maintain life uninterruptedly only because of life-force (jīvita-rūpa) and nutriment. All these facts show how the five āyatana rūpas originate with nāmarūpa.

            The sixth āyatanas viz., manāyatana comprising thought, reflection, intention, etc depends on wholesome or unwholesome mental states such as greed, faith and mental factors such as phassa (contact) as well as on its physical bases. It arises from its root viz., bhavaṅga which in turn forms the basis for the mind-process (manodvāra-vīthi).


            To recapitulate. Seeing involves sensitive eye-organ and consciousness. The eye-organ depends on consciousness, life-force, nutriment and physical base. The eye-consciousness depends on the eye-organ and the three mental factors of reflection, striving and contact. In short, the eye as well as the eye-consciousness depends or nāmarūpa and the same may be said of other five āyatanas.

            A thorough knowledge of the origin of the six āyatanas on the basis of nāmarūpa is possible only for the bodhisattas. Among the Buddha's disciples even Sāriputtrā and Moggallana did not seem to understand it comprehensively before they attained sotāpanna. For it is said that the ascetic Upatissa who was later to become Sāriputta thera attained the first stage on the holy path on hearing the verse uttered by Assaji thera.

            The verse, ascribed to the Buddha, says that all phenomena (dhammas) are the effects of certain other phenomena which are the causes. The Buddha points out these causes and there is the cessation of the effects together with the causes. Upatissa and his friend Kolita are said to have attained sotāpanna after hearing this verse but they could not have reflected deeply on the dependent origination in such a short space of time. One may fairly understand the Buddha's teaching on the doctrine according to one's intellectual capacity but it is impossible to grasp all of it fully.

            The commentary explains the verse in the context of the four noble truths, "All the dhammas is the effect" refers to the truth of suffering as having its origin in craving. The cause in the gāthā means craving as the cause of dukkha. So the gāthā epitomises the truth about suffering and its cause.

            In those days there were many views about the soul (atta) viz., that the soul was immortal and passed onto another abode after death, that it was annihilated after the final dissolution of the body, that it was created by God, that it was infinite and so forth. The gāthā recognizes only the existence of the cause; and effect and denied the immortality or annihilation of the soul and this teaching afforded the two ascetics a special insight into the nature of life.

            Visuddhimagga Mahāṭīkā identifies this gāthā with the teaching on Paticcasamuppada. It refers to a sutta in Samyuttanikāya which says, "If this cause arises, then that effect follows. If this cause ceases, then that effect is also ended. So avijjā causes saṅkhāra and so on until suffering becomes extinct." According to the Mahātikā, the substance of this teaching is implicit in the afore-mentioned gāthā, in regard to both the arising (anuloma) and cessation (patiloma) of dukkha.

            Mahayana piṭaka describes this gāthā as a sutta that sums up the doctrine of Paticcasamuppāda. Any writing of the gāthā is said to be beneficial if it is enshrined in a cetiya (pagoda). No wonder that many of these writings are found in very ancient pagodas.

            Both views in the commentary and Mahātikā are plausible. For the first two noble truths imply Paticcasamuppada in respect of the arising of dukkha and its cause while the other two noble truths imply the doctring in respect of the cessaion of dukkha.

            To sum up the cause and effects in the chain of causation. In the past life of a person ignorance leads to acts, speech and thoughts and these saṅkhāras give rise to viññāṇa. Then there are five effects in the present life, viz., viññāṇa, nāmarūpa, āyatana, phassa and vedanā. These effects in turn become causes or in other words, they sow the seeds for future life, viz., craving, clinging and becoming (taṇhā, upādana and jāti). As a result there are old age, death, grief and suffering in store for the future life.

            Paticcasamuppāda is profound and this is borne out by the Buddha's saying to Ānandā. Ānandā reflected on the doctrine from the beginning to the end and vice versa. To him it was very clear and it presented no difficulty. He approached the Buddha and said, "Lord, this Paticcasamuppāda is indeed very profound. But for me it seems so easy to understand." The Buddha chided him, saying, "You should not say like that, Ānandā."

            According to the commentary, the Buddha's words imply a compliment as well as a reproach to Ānandā. The Buddha meant to say in effect, "Ānandā, you are highly intelligent and so it is easy for you to understand the doctrine but do not think that it may be equally easy for other people to understand it."

            Ānandā's ability to understand the doctrine was due to four factors, viz, the pāramī (perfections) which he had acquired in his previous lives, the instructions of his teachers, his wide knowledge and his attainment of the first stage on the holy path.

            Long, long ago Ānandā was prince Sumana, the brother of Padumuttara Buddha. As a provincial governor, he subdued an uprising successfully. The king was much pleased and told him to ask for any boon he desired. The prince asked for permission to serve the Buddha for three months during the lent. The king did no wish to grant this boon and so he said evasively that it was indeed hard to know the Buddha's mind, that he could do nothing if the Lord was reluctant to go to the prince's abode.

            On the advice of the bhikkhus the prince requested a thera named Sumana, to arrange for an interview with the Buddha. When he met the Buddha, he told the Lord how Sumana thera had done a thing that was beyond the power of other bhikkhus. He asked what kind of good deeds a man should do to be so intimate with the Lord. The Buddha said that he could become like Sumana by practising dāna and sīla. The prince requested the Lord to spend the lent in his city as he wished to do good deeds so that he might become a specially privileged thera like Sumana in the holy order of a future Buddha. Seeing that his visit there might benefit all and sundry, the Buddha said, "Sumana, the Buddha loves solitude," a saying that meant tacit acceptance of the invitation.

            The prince then ordered over one hundred monasteries to be built along the route where the Buddha and the Saṅgha might rest comfortably at night. He bought a park and turned it into a magnificent monastery as well as other dwellings for the Buddha and numerous monks. Then when all was ready, he sent word to his father and invited the Buddha to come to his city. The prince and his people welcomed the Buddha and his followers and honouring them with flowers and scents led them to the monastery. There the prince formally donated the monastery and the park to the Buddha.

            After performing this act of dāna the prince summoned his wives and ministers and said, "The Buddha has come here out of compassion for us. The Buddhas do not care for material welfare. They care only for the practice of the Dhamma. I wish to honour the Buddha with practice so that he may be well pleased. I will observe the ten precepts and stay at the residence of the Buddha. You must feed and serve all the Arahats every day during the rain-retreat as I have done today."


            Incidentally there is a story illustrative of the importance the Buddha attached to the practice of the Dhamma. One day the Buddha came out of the Jetavana monastery with the bhikkhus to go on tour. King Kosala, the merchant Anāthapiṇḍika and other lay disciples requested the Buddha not to go on tour but it was in vain. The merchant was unhappy because he would not be able to hear the Buddha's teaching or to make offerings to the Lord and the bhikkhus. His slave-girl, Puṇṇā by name, said that she would ask the Buddha to come back. The merchant promised to free her from bondage if she could make the Buddha return to the monastery.

            Then Puṇṇā followed the Buddha quickly and implored the Lord to come back. The Buddha asked her what she could do for him. She replied that she had nothing to offer but that she would take refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha and observe the five precepts if the Lord spent the lent in Sāvatthi city. Saying, "Sādhu-well said", the Buddha blessed her and returned to Jetavana monastery.

            The news spread and the merchant set Puṇṇā free and adopted her as his daughter. She was now free to do what she liked, free to shape her own destiny. For this reason and by virtue of her pāramī (kammic potential) in her previous lives she joined the holy order. She practised vipassanā and when she developed insight into the impermanence of nāmarūpa, the Buddha exhorted her thus: "My daughter, just as the moon is full and complete on the fifteenth day, so also you should practise vipassanā to the end. When your vipassanā insight is complete, you will attain the end of suffering."

            After hearing this exhortation, Puṇṇā their attained the last stage on the holy path and became an Arahat. The Buddha had, of course, foreseen Puṇṇā's destiny and it was his concern for her spiritual welfare that prompted him to cancel the projected tour and turn back in response to her appeal. This is an example of the high regard for the practice of dhamma that Gotama Buddha had in common with other Buddhas.

            So the prince observed the ten precepts and dwelt at the residence of the Buddha, he spent his time near Sumana thera, the special attendant and watched him serve the needs of the Buddha in a very intimate manner. Shortly before the end of the lent he returned home, donated lavishly to the Saṅgha and in his prayer to the Buddha he affirmed his desire to become an intimate attendant of a future Buddha. The Buddha blessed him and the prince developed pāramīs for innumerable lifetimes. The jātakas refer to many lives which he devoted to perfecting himself in collaboration with bodhisatta Gotama. Sometimes the bodhisatta was king and he was the king's minister or the bodhisatta was a human being and he happened to be a deva or Sakka. But their positions were often reversed. In some jātakas they were brothers.

            Thus they developed pāramīs close together through their long samsāric journey and in his last existence Ānandā was the nephew of King Suddhodana. After spending the first lent near Benares the Buddha went to Rājagaha and from there he proceeded to Kapilavatthu at the invitation of his father. When he left his native place, Ānandā and some Sakyan princes followed the Buddha and joined the holy order.

            The pāramī (perfections) which Ānandā had acquired through many lifetimes made it possible for him to understand easily Paṭiccasamuppāda that has baffled so many people. Moreover, Ānandā had received instructions from teachers. He had not only lived with his teachers but also learned and inquired about the meanings of the doctrine and memorized them. This kind of learning helped him to understand Paticcasamuppāda. In fact he attained the first stage of the holy path after having heard the sermon of the noted preacher, Punna thera. Ānandā paid a high tribute to Puṇṇa for his illuminating discourse. The substance of the discourse is as follows.

            "Self-conceit arises from attachment to the body, feeling, memory, kamma-formations (saṅkhāra) and consciousness. It cannot arise without the five khandhās any more than the reflection of a man's face can appear in the absence of a mirror. The body, feeling etc., are not permanent. Since they are not permanent, you should contemplate and realize that none of the five khandhās, whether in the past, present or future, internal or external, gross or subtle, good or bad, distant or near, is yours, is you or is your ego."

            "The well-informed disciple of the Buddha who thus contemplates and realizes truth is disillusioned with the five khandhās. He becomes detached and free. He knows that his mind is free, that he has done what is to be done, that he has nothing else to do for his freedom."

            This was what Puṇṇa preached to Ānandā. As a sotāpannā, Ānandā realized the cause-and-effect relationships of Paticasamuppāda. He had this insight when he practised vipassanā. He knew that illusion, attachment, obsession, effort, rebirth, consciousness, etc., form the links in the chain of causation. Here illusion or ignorance is avijjā, attachment is taṇhā, obsession is upādāna, effort is kamma. So when it is said that kamma leads to rebirth, we should understand that rebirth is also conditioned by upādāna, etc. So the past involves avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna and kamma as causes. The yogī who realizes this through contemplation of nāmarūpa is free from all doubt which we cannot remove merely through learning and reflection.

            As the best-informed disciple of the Buddha, Ānandā also gained recognition of the Teacher in matters of knowledge. He usually accompanied the Buddha on preaching tour and memorized all the discourses. He could repeat a discourse verbatim after he had once heard it. As for the Buddha's talks given in his absence he learnt from others and memorized them. The dhammas which he had thus learnt by heart are said to number eighty four thousands.

            Ānandā was well known for his retentive memory and the commentary on Mahāvedalla sutta says that he could memorize hundreds of gāthās in a short space of time. What, with his wide knowledge of the teachings of the Buddha and his chief disciples, it is no wonder that the doctrine of Paṭicasamuppāda did not present much difficulty to him. Even today given a thorough knowledge of the Piṭaka, a man may understand the cause-and-effect relationship in the doctrine.


            Nevertheless, the doctrine is abstruse in terms of effects, causes, teaching, and empirical knowledge (paṭiveda).

            In the first place it is very hard to understand saṅkhāra, etc., as the results of avijjā and other causes. For most people mistake the suffering of nāmarūpa for happiness. This is avajjā and they do not know it as an illusion. They believe that it is their ego-entities that think, they do no know saṅkhāra (effort) as an effect of avijjā but they think it is they themselves who make the effort. So it is hard to see good or bad deeds (kamma) as the effects of ignorance. More difficult to understand is the causal relation between this saṅkhāra of the previous life and the rebirth consciousness of the present existence. Likewise, it is hard to understand that nāmarūpa, salāyatana, etc., are conditioned by viññāṇa etc.,

            Equally incomprehensible are the causes involved in dependent origination. For people believe that they shape their own destiny. Some say that they are created by God or Brahma while some insist that everything happens by chance. Most of them do not see avijjā, etc as the mainspring of their existence.

            Again some teachings of the Buddha on the doctrine begin with avijjā and ends with death. Some are set forth in reverse order. Some begin with the middle links in the chain and proceed to the beginning or to the end. These various versions of the doctrine adds to the difficulty of understanding it.

            In order to gain an insight into the doctrine one has to practise vipassanā and realize the facts of causal relationship empirically. This vipassanā approach to the study of Paticcasamuppāda is by no means easy for the method must be right and one will have to practise it steadily and thoroughly.

            In spite of these difficulties the doctrine seemed clear to Ānandā, because of his unusual qualifications. So the Buddha's words "Do not say like this, Ānandā". may be an implicit compliment to him. But according to the commentary, the Buddha's saying may be an indirect reproach to him. It may mean in effect, "Ānandā, you say that Paticcasamuppāda is easy to understand. Then why did you become a sotāpana only after hearing my teaching? Why have you not attained any stage higher than the first stage on the path? You should think of your shortcomings. You are my disciple with average, limited intelligence and what you say does not agree with my words. It is a saying that should not have been uttered by a close disciple like you. I have had to develop intelligence for aeons to know this doctrine and so you should not speak lightly of it."

            Thus after chiding Ānandā implicitly by a few words, the Buddha stressed the profundity of Paṭiccasamuppāda. "Profound, Ānandā, is this dependent origination and profound does it appear. It is through not understanding and not penetrating this law that this world of living beings resembles a angled ball of thread, a bird's thicket of sedge or reed and that man does not escape from the lower states of existence, from the course of suffering, from the round of rebirths."

            In other words, this law concerning the conditioning of viññāṇa, nāmarūpa, etc by avijjā, saṅkhāra, etc is very profound. So people do not know that there are only cause-and-effect relationships and that there is no permanent being. They believe that a living being exists in a permanent form from the time of inception; that there is a permanent entity behind the being that develops and grows up. Some hold that this core or soul of the being has many previous lives. All these illusions are due to ignorance of the reality underlying the dependent origination.

            A living being's acts, words and thoughts are clearly due to ignorance of the four noble truths and dependent origination. Undeniably, good acts bear good fruits, bad acts bear bad fruits and everyone fares according to his deeds. So ignorance leads to kammas or saṅkhāras which in turn give rise to rebirth, consciousness, etc. This fact is clear to an intelligent person.

            Because of their inability to understand dependent origination, living beings remain mired in the round of rebirths, wandering ceaselessly from one existence to another. By and large they land in the lower worlds and pass onto the deva-realms only occasionally by virtue of their good kamma. When the good kammic effects run out, they revert to the lower worlds.

            It is hard for the denizens of the lower worlds to pass on to the human or deva worlds. For attainment of the higher planes of existence is possible only when a dying person has memories or visions of his good deeds and a good act is simply unthinkable among the lower forms of life. Animals kill one another and the law of the jungle prevails in their world, leaving no room for love, pity and other spiritual values. They usually die stricken with pain and fear. So a lower being is very likely to be reborn in the lower worlds.

            Because of the ignorance of dependent origination, a living being is unable to free himself from the round of rebirth. He is like an ox yoked to the mortar. No matter how long it goes round and round, the animal cannot leave the strictly limited area of its mobility. Likewise, the ignorant person is mired in the life-cycle (samsāra) which largely means confinement in the nether worlds and for aeons he remains subject to rebirth.

            Understanding of Paṭiccasamuppāda is as vital to spiritual liberation as the understanding of the four noble truths. In fact the four noble truths are synonymous with the dependent origination. The object of vipassanā practice is to gain insight both intellectually and empirically into these teachings. But these teachings are deep and hard to understand. Even in vipassanā practice it is not easy to have clear ideas about avijjā, saṅkhāra, etc.

            The Buddha reflected on Paṭiccasamuppāda before and shortly after his attainment of supreme enlightenment. For seven days the Buddha was absorbed in he peace of liberation (vimuttisukha) and on the seventh day at night he contemplated Paṭiccasamuppāda in terms of conditioning (paccaya) or cause-and-effect relationship.

            Having dealt with the first links in the chain of causal sequence, we will now proceed to phassa that is conditioned by salhāyatana. Salhāyattana means the six sense-organs and the six sense-objects, viz., visual form, sound, smell, taste, tactile object and mind-object. The contact between a sense organ and the corresponding sense-object is called phassa. It is an intangible phenomenon of mental life but it shows itself clearly when the object has an unmistakable impact on the mind. For example, we are shocked when we see someone being ill-treated. It makes us tremble when we see a man whose life is hanging by a thread on the top of a tree. Seeing a ghost will send the shivers down the spine. Hearing or reading an interesting story often leaves some impressions that may remain indelible for a long time. All these show what it means when there is phassa or the impact of a sense-object on the mind of a person.

            The impact is occasionally very violent and gives rise to violent emotions and outbursts of passion, anger, etc. According to the commentary on Aṅguttara Nikāya, in the time of the ancient Sinhalese king Duṭṭhagāmaṇi, a young monk happened to see a girl. The girl looked at him too and both of them were so much consumed with a burning desire that they died. Again an elderly monk became insane after looking unmindfully at the queen of king Mahānāga.

            In Mudulakkhaṇa jātaka the bodhisatta was a rishi (recluse) who went to the king's palace to have his meal. He went there by air as he had psychic powers. When the rishi appeared suddenly, the queen rose to her feet in a hurry and her garment slipped. The queen's seductive pose instantly aroused the long-dormant sexual desire of the rishi. He could not eat any food. His psychic powers having vanished, he walked back to his abode and there he lay, afflicted whit the fires of lust and passion.

            On learning what had happened, the king offered the queen to the rishi as he was confident of the holy man's ability to recover his higher self eventually. He secretly instructed the queen to do her best for the welfare of the rishi.

            Taking the queen, the rishi left the king's palace. Once outside the gate queen told him to go back and ask the king for a house. He was offered an old house but there he had to fetch a hatchet and a basket for the disposal of excreta and filth. Again and again he had to go and ask the king for other things that he needed. Going to and fro and doing all household chores at the bidding of the queen, the rishi was dead tired but he did not come to his senses as he was still dominated by lust and passion.

            After having done everything that he was told to do, he sat down near the queen to take rest. Then she pulled his moustache with a jerk and said. "Are you not aware of your being a samaṇna (ascetic) whose object is to do away with passions and desires? Are you so much out of your senses?" This awakened the rishi to a sense of his blind folly and ignorance. After handing back the queen to the king, he went to the Himalayan forest, practised vipassanā and recovered him psychic power. On his death he attained the Brahmā world.

            The moral is that even a person of spiritual caliber like a bodhisatta could not escape the fires of defilements. The rishi might have casually seen the queen before but the impact was not violent enough to jolt his emotional life. It was the clear, vivid impressions of the queen's physical appearance that harassed and engulfed him with the fires of lust and passion for many days.

            In Ummādantī jātaka king Sivi became almost crazy after seeing Ummādantī, the wife of his commander-in-chief. The woman was so famous for her beauty that the king sent his brahmin advisers to see whether she had the qualities of a noble lady. But at the sight of the woman they were so much bewitched by her beauty that they lost self-control and made a mess of the feast given by their host. Disgusted by their disorderly behaviour, Ummādantī had them hustled out of the house. There upon the disgruntled brahmins reported to the king that she was not qualified to be a queen. The king lost interest in her and she became the wife of the supreme commander. She was, however, determined to make things even with the king and so when he went round the city during a festival she showed her beauty and charms to the best of her ability.

            The king was half beside himself with infatuation for the woman. Unable to sleep, he raved about her and gave vent to his blind passion in a gāthā which says that if he were granted a boon by the king of devas, he would ask for an opportunity to sleep one or two nights with Ummādantī. The impact of a sense-object depends largely on the nature of the impression conveyed by the object. If the impression is vague and dim, it produces only mild feeling and craving but much vedanā, taṇhā, etc., follow in the wake of clear and vivid impressions.

            The impact may also lead to outburst of temper. We show anger at the sight of an offensive object, and we fear a frightful object. Unpleasant words are irritating to us. Pride wells up in us when we think of something that boosts our ego, we hold wrong views when we toy with the idea of soul or with a teaching that makes a farce of kamma and its fruit. Objects of envy make us envious and objects which we wish to possess exclusively make us miserly. These are instances of phassa that fuel unwholesome kammas.

            Wholesome kammas too arise from phassa. Objects of devotion arouse faith, those whom we should forgive or tolerate help to foster forbearance and contemplation of the Buddha and Arahats make us mindful, kindly and so forth. So Paṭisambhidāmagga says: "Conditioned by phassa, there arise fifty cetasikas (mental factors)." It attributes feeling, perception and kamma-formations to phassa.

            We see because of phassa and this phassa occurs because of the eye, the visual object and the visual consciousness. The Buddha's teaching makes a distinction between the visual consciousness and the visual object. Ordinary people tend to confuse the former with the latter but the Buddha stated clearly that visual consciousness arises from the eye and the visual object and that phassa means the conjunction of the eye, the visual object and the visual consciousness.

            This is the impact of seeing for which the three āyatanas, viz., the eye, etc., form the three necessary and sufficient conditions. The nature of impact is realized empirically by the yogī who practises mindfulness. The yogī notes, "seeing, seeing" at every moment of seeing and as concentration develops, he comes to realize that seeing is not uncaused, that it is not made or created by a person; that it is a psychophysical phenomenon, having the eye and the visual object as its cause and the visual consciousness as its effect.

            The impact on the sense-organ leads to feelings that may be pleasant, unpleasant or indifferent according to the nature of the sense-object. If the object is beautiful there arises pleasant feeling; if it is ugly, we have unpleasant feeling. If the object is neither ugly nor lovely, the feeling is indifferent. This feeling (upekkhā vedanā) does not give rise to any comment, whether favourable or unfavourable; indeed it is not even recognized as a feeling but it is accepted by the ego. In fact these three kinds of feeling have nothing to do with the ego or self but are aspects of the mental process stemming from sense-contact.

            To understand Paṭiccasamuppāda means to be free from skepticism and illusion. Since this freedom is the essential attribute of the yogī at the first stage on the holy path, it is important to understand the doctrine. Ignorance of it tends to cause doubts about the Buddha, the Dhamma and so forth. There are eight kinds of doubt.

            (1) Doubt about the Buddha. This leads the skeptic to raise questions such as "Was the Buddha really a being who was free from all defilements? Or was he an ordinary man who commanded the blind faith of his followers?"

            (2) Doubt about the Teaching. "Are there the Path and Nibbāna that really ensure the extinction of craving, hatred and ignorance?"

            (3) Doubt about the Saṅgha. "Are there Ariyas, the Noble ones who are really free from defilements? Sotāpannas who having overcome illusion and doubt will never be reborn in the lower worlds? Sakadāgāmis who do not have much sensual desire and anger? Anāgāmis who are wholly free from sensual desire and anger? Or the Arahats who have freed themselves from all defilements?"

            (4) Doubt about the practice, "Is the practice of morality or contemplation beneficial and helpful to the higher spiritual progress?"

            (5) Doubt about the past. "Did I exist in the past? Why and how did I exist in the past? What kind of person was I in my previous life? Did I originate with the moss or did I come into being spontaneously?"

            (6) Doubt about the future. "Will I exist after my death? What kind of person will I become in my next life?"

            (7) Doubt about both the past and the future. According to the sub-commentaries, this doubt refers to the present life that is between the past and the future of a man's life-cycle. This interpretation agrees with the Pāḷi text of Sutta piṭaka which says: "Now there arises doubt as regards one's self in the present." Such doubt may raise questions such as, "Am I really myself? Does the ego exist or does it not exist? If the ego exists, what kind of being is it? Is it big or small? Why or how does the ego exist? Was it created or did it come into being spontaneously? From where did the ego come and where will it go after the final dissolution of the body?"

            These questions show that there are five doubts about the past, five doubts about future and six doubts about the present. The yogī overcomes all these doubts when he is free from all illusions about the self or ego (kankhāvitaraṇa-visuddhi.)

            (8) The last subject that raises much doubt is the doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppāda that emphasizes the primacy of cause-and-effect relationship in the world of living beings. Is effort really due to ignorance of the true dhamma? Is rebirth really conditioned by kamma? Is it a fact that bad kamma is harmful and good kamma beneficial to a future life? Is there really a cause for every phenomenon? Is everything the outcome of the combination of atoms and electrons by chance? These doubts centre on causal links, e.g. avijjā, saṅkhāra, etc and resultant links, e.g. viññāṇa, rebirth, etc in the chain of causal sequence as enunciated in the doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppāda.

            These doubts give rise to wrong views in the long run. The false beliefs that conflict with the dependent origination are rooted in these doubts. Speculations on the nature of life that are above one's intellectual level produce doubts in the beginning but eventually turn the sceptic into one who clings to illusions. Such scepticism and false views are due to ignorance of Paṭiccasamuppāda. One who understands the teaching clearly harbours no doubt, let alone illusions.

            In the final analysis a living being is a compound of causes and effects as are non-living things like the earth, the sun, tree, etc. The law of causation governs the universe leaving no room for creation or spontaneous occurrence. Modern science provides over-whelming evidence for the absolute dependence of the non-living material world on the interplay of cause and effect. It tends to bear out the truth of the Buddha's teaching about the conditionality of everything in the world, whether it be life, mind or matter.

            The Buddha laid emphasis on the conditioned nature of man's internal life. The teaching leaves out of account the external world of inanimate matter because the material world has no life-cycle and is not subject to rebirth and suffering. What matters most from the Buddhist point of view is the living being. If left to itself, the nāmarūpa comprising the living being passes through innumerable lives and for the most part the individual suffers on the lower planes of existence. But if we understand the nāmarūpa process and act wisely, we can make progress gradually on the way to liberation. Even if we are not yet liberated we can achieve a better life and fare fairly well in the round of rebirths. A clear understanding of Paṭiccasamuppāda is vital for it ensures complete extinction of defilements.

            We have described ignorance as the cause of effort (saṅkhāra) and kammic effort as the cause of rebirth. It is necessary to say something more about the origin of rebirth consciousness. In a sutta of Aṅguttara Nikāya the Buddha likens the wholesome or unwholesome volitional (cetāna) action (kamma) to a thriving field, consciousness (viññāṇa) to seeds and craving (taṇhā) to water for irrigating the field. The planting of trees requires fields and nurseries. Likewise, rebirth consciousness presupposes arable land in the form of kamma, kamma gives rise to the potential for rebirth and although the former states of consciousness disappear, the rebirth potential remains bound up with the psyche. Like a budding plant it does not materialize as yet but it is bound to become actual under favourable circumstances, just as a man who has committed a crime is a potential prisoner or a worker who has distinguished himself in a state factory is a potential winner of government reward for good service.

            Furthermore, rebirth depends on wholesome or unwholesome consciousness no less than does a plant depend on seeds for its germination. The good or bad viññāṇa arise and pass away but they touch off a ceaseless flow of similar states of consciousness.

            These states are the outcome of former kammic viññāṇas just like the transformation of a snake's skin. The most vital of them is the death-bed consciousness centering on one's kamma or objects associated with it (kammanimitta) or visions of future life (gatinimitta). This encounter of a dying person with signs and visions is called upaṭṭhanasamangita which means the foreshadowing of the future life as conditioned by saṅkhāra-kamma. In a sense it marks the transition from dying consciousness to rebirth consciousness somewhat similar to the development of a plant from a seed to a sprout.

            A seed needs water to turn into a plant. Without water or at least moisture from the air it will remain sterile. In the same way although kamma forms the basis for a future life, there is no rebirth in the absence of craving (taṇhā). So in the case of Arahats although there are conditions for rebirth in terms of viññāṇa and the kamma that they have done as ordinary persons, the rebirth consciousness cannot arise because of the extinction of craving.

            Taṇhā is inherent in non-Arahats and it is most powerful in common people. It makes the sense-objects pleasant, attractive and desirable. It creates the illusion of pleasure, happiness and hope. It likes what is good and makes happiness and prosperity the main object of life. Taṇhā motivates the kammic consciousness which leads to other mental states. On the approach of death these mental states give rise to signs and visions. The dying person delights in pleasant visions and he becomes lively and cheerful. This shows that his kammic seeds are beginning to sprout. He does not welcome unpleasant visions but still these visions have something to do with himself and this self-attachment, too, leads to the germination of the kammic seed.

            Therefore in the case of common people rebirth is conditioned by three factors, viz., kamma (action), cittaviññāṇa that is linked to kammic consciousness and taṇhā. Kamma as the fertile soil for rebirth is evident in death-bed visions and signs, the germination of the seed is shown by the dying person's interest in these signs and visions and one's self. So after death there arises rebirth consciousness as conditioned by the mental state at the last moment of the previous life.

            Rebirth consciousness brings into play nāmarūpa, āyatana, phassa, vedanā and their interrelations that concern the whole life. So in a sense we may regard it as the seed of present existence. It is inextricably bound up with nāmarūpa. All nāmarūpa, whether in or out of the body, is suffering as they are subject to constant arising and passing away. But ignorance makes us blind to dukkha, creates illusion and attachment and keeps us engaged in the pursuit of sense-objects. This preoccupation leads to the renewal of existence.

            With rebirth consciousness as the basis of a new existence there arise the physical body as its basis and the concomitant mental factors such as phassa, vedanā, etc. When rebirth consciousness ceases, there follow other mental states in succession which may touch off good or bad kammas such as greed, anger, contentment, forbearance, etc. These mental states in turn lead to physical actions such as sitting, standing, and so forth.

            Hence the Buddha's teaching: "Cittenā niyate loko---"a pāḷi verse which may be freely translated as: "The mind (thought, will, etc) leads the world. It draws the world wherever it pleases. The whole world follows the mind." Here the world (loka) refers to the world of living beings. The mind leads the living beings rightfully or wrongfully. The mind of a good man who develops faith, morality, etc will lead him to do good deeds. It will make him hear the dhamma and practise vipassanā. It will land him on the higher planes of existence or bring him to the goal of Nibbāna. On the other hand, the mind of an evil man will lead him to seek sensual objects and do evil deeds. After death it takes him to the lower worlds and makes him subject to much suffering.

            This verse shows that all nāmarūpas are dominated by the mind. It accords with the teaching of Paṭiccasamuppāda that because of viññāṇa there arise psycho-physical phenomena such as phassa, etc. We have already given an account of phassa arising from the eye and now a few words about the phassa of hearing. As in the case of seeing, hearing also involves three factors, viz., the ear, the sound and the ear-consciousness.

            Hearing is impossible without the ear-organ and the sound. Scientists say that sound-waves travel at the rate of 1100 ft. per second. This is the natural speed of sound; the radio broadcast can carry it all over the world in a moment. When it comes into contact with the ear, it is like the reflection in the mirror and the hearing occurs.

            But it is a mistake to believe that it is the original owner of the ear who hears. The sensitive organs of the ear are in a ceaseless flux, the rūpas involved are forever arising and passing away. They are like the ever changing waters of a flowing stream. It is the contact of sound-waves with the stream of rūpas that sparks the ear-consciousness. The consciousness occurs only for an instant and vanishes. This is followed by the citta that continues to focus on the sound, inquire it and decide. Each of these cittas occurs for a moment and vanishes. Then there flash forth successively with much speed seven impulse-moments, after which there occur two tought-moments that focus on the sound.

            Such is then the consciousness-process involved in hearing. Whenever we hear a sound, the ear-viññāṇa is renewed on the basis of the ear and the sound. So the yogī who practises mindfulness realizes that hearing is conditioned by the ear and the sound, that there is no person or being who hears. In fact the yogī is more aware of the causal relation in hearing than in seeing.

            Thus hearing means the conjunction of the ear, the sound and the ear-consciousness. The impact of the sound is phassa and it is quite clear to the meditating yogī. Some are so sensitive that when they hear a harsh sound, they feel like being attacked by a tremendous onrush of it towards the ear. Some may even be startled by the dropping of a leaf. The impact is evident when out of a variety of sound that reach our ears we select and attend to the sound that we wish to hear. As for loud, harsh and piercing sounds, we cannot avoid hearing them. We may not look at an unpleasant object but the sound cannot be so ignored.

            We have pleasant or unpleasant feelings according to the pleasant or unpleasant sounds that we hear. Sounds and sweet voices are welcome to the ear while harsh sounds and abusive words are odious to us. When we hear ordinary sounds, we have feelings that are neither pleasant nor unpleasant. In such cases we may not even be aware of our feeling, the upekkhā vedanā that is so subtle that it escapes our notice.

            True, the Abhidhammā books deny that we have pleasant or unpleasant feeling when we have consciousness in connection with the eye, the ear, the nose or the tongue and describe it only as upekkhā vedanā. But for the contemplating yogī it is not advisable to focus on eye-consciousness, etc. He should contemplate the whole process of consciousness (vīthi) which involves pleasant feeling along with some thought-moments, e.g. santirana, javana and tadā-rammanā and unpleasant feelings along with javana or impulse-moments.

            Moreover, even though the eye-consciousness, etc may be upekkhāvedanā at the moment of their arising they will be accompanied by unpleasant feeling if they happen to be the effects of unwholesome kamma as is evident in our contact with unpleasant sense-objects that cause painful emotions such as fear. Loud noise may make us deaf, evil smells may cause headache while unwholesome food may do harm to our health. Likewise, the upekkhāvedanā that is conditioned by the four kinds of pleasant sense-objects implies pleasant feelings. We enjoy seeing beautiful objects, hearing pleasant sounds, etc. This shows the pleasant character of upekkhāvedanā because of its being the product of wholesome kammas. In this connection the sub commentary on Visuddhimagga says:

            "The upekkhāvedanā which being the full-blown product of low kamma is painful and as such it is of low character." In other words, the upekkhāvedanā that is based on unwholesome kamma may be indifferent and neutral but since it stems from evil kamma it is low just like the flower that blooms in a heap of excrement. Moreover although it is not as worse as dukkhavedanā, it is unbearable and so it is low. In fact, the kammic effect of a bad deed is never good or free from pain and suffering.

            Then elaborating the function of vedanā in the chain of causation, the sub-commentary says; "The upekkhāvedanā that results from unwholesome kamma should be described as dukkha since it is undesirable. The upekkhāvedanā that has its origin in wholesome kamma should be described as sukha since it is desirable." It is evident in the pleasant feeling that we have when we hear a pleasant sound. Sweet words are welcome to the ear while harsh words jar on it. The nature of some feelings caused by ordinary sound is not obvious and such feelings are termed upekkhāvedanā.

            The three kinds of vedanā due to hearing is distinctly familiar to the ever mindful yogī. He knows that the dukkha or sukha vedanā arises from contact between the sound and the ear; that there is no soul or atta to be affected by it; that the vedanā arises and vanishes instantly and that everything is impermanent. As his concentration develops, he becomes aware of the ceaseless arising and vanishing of all the three kinds of vedanā.

            Like hearing, smelling is also conditioned. The smelling consciousness arises from the contact between the nose and the odour. It is impossible to smell without the odour or the sensitive part of the nose (ghānapasāda). People without sensitive nose are rare. Once I met a monk who said that he had practically no scent even when he smelled handkerchief moistened with perfume. Even when the nose is sensitive you cannot have any scent if you plug it or if there is nothing to be scented. The scent is detected only when it is wafted in the air and comes into contact with the sensitive part of the nose. Ordinary people labour under the delusion that it is the person or the living being who smells. In fact it is the contact between the air-borne scent and the rūpas of the nose in continual flux that causes smelling consciousness. As in the case of seeing and hearing this ghanaviññāṇa is a process that involves advertence (avajjāna), impulsion (javana), investigation and other stages. The crux of the matter is of course the smelling consciousness which ceaselessly arises and vanishes, depending on the nose and the smell.

            We are all familiar with the offensive smell of something rotten or the fragrance of a flower. Common people believe that it is they who smell whereas the yogī knows that it is only a phenomenon arising from the conjunction of the nose, the odour and consciousness and he comes to realize the ceaseless influx and impermanence of everything. That is the difference between the yogī and the common people.

            Vedanā (feeling) may be agreeable or disagreeable according to nature of impact (phassa). Scents of flowers and perfumes cause pleasant feelings whereas the stench of the decomposing matter is offensive to the nose. The ordinary smells cause neither pleasant nor unpleasant feelings and this is upekkhavedanā; a feeling that is so subtle that we do not notice it. The yogī notes smelling consciousness and becomes aware of the three kinds of feelings, and their arising and dissolution.

            Consciousness in eating (jīvhāviññāṇa) arises from contact between the tongue and the food. Without the tongue or the flavour of food there can be no consciousness of taste. But if the tongue is so unhealthy as to lack sensitivity, the food will be tasteless. Common people believe that it is a living being who eats and enjoys the flavour. In fact the rūpas forming the sensitive part of the tongue are forever in a flux and it is from the contact of these rūpas and the flavour of food that there arises consciousness which involves the thought-moment that we have mentioned before. The events at this stage are so rapid that they seem to form a single thought-moment. This consciousness (jīvhāviññāṇa) changes at every moment, depending on the tongue and the flavour. It is this citta that knows sweetness, sourness, bitterness and so forth.

            The conjunction of the tongue, the flavour and consciousness means what in Pāḷi is called phassa. This is familiar to everybody. But common people think that it is they as living beings who experience the flavour. Only the yogī who notes all the psycho-physical events that occur while he is eating knows it as a phenomenon dependent on the tongue, the flavour and consciousness. Later on he gains a clear insight into its ceaseless flux and impermanence.

            Contact with flavour is followed by sensations (vedanā) that may be good or bad according to the flavour. Eating good food gives us pleasure, we like it, whereas we complain of bad food or the bitter tase of some medicine. The feeling that we have when we eat some food is indifferent. Although this is upekkhā vedanā, the opportunity to eat is the outcome of good kamma. Hence eating such food also has a pleasant aspect and leads to attachment. But as for the yogī with developed samādhi who notes the nāmarūpa at every moment, he becomes empirically aware of the arising of all sensations (pleasant, unpleasant or indifferent) and their passing away.

            Another source of contact, feeling, etc., is the sensitive part of the body (kāyadvāra). It is said: "Body consciousness arises from the body or tactile organ and the tactile object. Body-impression (phassa) arises from the conjunction of the body, the tactile object and tactile consciousness and the tactile impression conditions the (tactile) sensations (vedanā)."

            This needs some elaboration. Seeing, hearing, smelling and eating-each of these physical events concerns only its respective organ, viz., the eyes, etc. Consciousness in connection with them also arises only in a certain part of the head. These psycho-physical events are restricted in terms of locality and duration. You are conscious of eating only when you are eating, conscious of hearing only when there is something to be heard. As for the body-consciousness, it is present in regard to every part of the body. You have tactile impression somewhere on your body at any time whenever you think of it. So its sphere is extensive and its duration is long. For the beginner in vipassanā practice, contemplation of tactile impression is most important and so the yogī should know something about it.

            The fine, sensitive matter (rūpa) that can receive the tactile impression pervades the whole body. It exists in every healthy part of the body and so it can give rise to tactile consciousness everywhere through contact with an external or internal rūpa in the body. These rūpas are impermanent and are in a flux from moment to moment. They are like the electric energy that passes into the bulb and gives light.

            In this state of ceaseless flux the sensitive body rūpa that has not yet passed away collides with an external or internal rūpa, thereby giving rise to body consciousness. As in the case of seeing, etc., this consciousness involves a series of thought-moments, viz., citta that inquires the tactile object, citta that knows citta that registers etc. But these cittas arise and vanish so rapidly that the tactile consciousness appears to involve only a single thought-moment.

            Body-consciousness is always present. It is not apparent when the mind is absorbed in any object other than the body. But if the attention is directed to the body, there is no doubt about the tactile impression somewhere as, for example, the contact between the body and the floor, the body and the clothes, and so forth.

            So the yogī who practises mindfulness in regard to physical contact of his body is aware of its conditionality. He knows that it is neither uncaused nor created, that it in fact depends on the conjunction of tactile object and the sensitive rūpa in healthy condition. The object of contact is called phoṭṭhappha in Pāḷi and it is of three kinds, viz, pathavī, tejo and vāyo.

            Pathavī element has the attribute of hardness and coarseness and this attribute is to be found if one examines or focuses on a part of the body that gives a clear impression of contact. Softness and coarseness do not differ essentially. We call velvet a smooth object in comparison with many things that are coarser than it but it appears to be rough when it hits the soft part of the human eye. So softness and roughness are relative terms that differ only in degree, not in kind. Softness and smoothness represent solidity that is a mark of pathavī element.

            According to commentaries, solidity as the essence of pathavī element serves as the abode of other elements that have to depend on it just as all objects have to depend on earth. For example, rice-powder when mixed-with water turns into lump in which it may be termed pathavī because of its solidity or its predominantly solid character, The particles of powder are combined and held together by the water (āpo) element. The lump also contains tejo element that is concerned with heat or cold, as well as the wind (vāyo) element that supports stiffness and expansion. So this lump of rice powder contains all the four elements and of these the elements of solidity (pathavī) is the basis of other elements. All the other three elements are also inherent in the rice powder. Thus just as rice powder is the support of water element, etc, so also the earth element is the support of its associated rūpas. This is the function of the earth element.

            Thus to the yogī, the earth-element appears to be the basis for its co-elements. This is its paccupathāna and so is of heaviness and lightness. In Dhammasangani, one of the books of Abhidhammā piṭaka and its commentary, the pathavī element is described as heavy and light. So when you move a thing and feel that it is heavy or light, that feeling or idea is to be included in the paccupaṭṭhāna of the pathavī element. The yogī is aware of the characteristics of pathavī element through its roughness, softness or smoothness. He is aware of its function when he realizes that it serves as the basis of other rūpas. He is aware of its paccupaṭṭhāna when he knows that other rūpas lie in the pathavī element, that it bears other rūpas, that it is heavy or light. Such awareness of pathavī element in terms of characteristics (lakkhaṇa) function (rasa) and pacupaṭṭhāna means realization of truth and discriminative insight into the nature of nāmarūpa.

            As for the common people, contact with pathavī element is usually understood in terms of hands, legs, clothes, man and so forth. This way of thinking is wrong but the yogī knows the truth through the practice of mindfulness.

            Tejo element means heat. It is evident when we change the position of the body because we feel heated and pressed in some part of the body. Coldness too is a kind of weak tejo element. A thing is hot or cold relative to other things. The shade of a tree may be cool in comparison with the heat of the sun but it is hot relative to the interior of a cave or house. The water in the pot is cool relative to that in the open air but hot when compared to iced water. Hot, warm and cool are relative terms that mean essentially tejo dhātu (element).

            Tejo or heat is essential to maturation and development. The function of heat is to make organisms mature and ripe. Old age and decay of trees, buildings, the earth, rocks, etc are due to heat or the sun and it is the heat of the physical body that gives rise to grey hair, decaying teeth, wrinkled skin and other signs of senility. The greater the heat, the more rapid is the process of maturation. Tejo element makes the rūpas soft and pliant. So as the yogī notes "hot" "hot", he realizes its function, viz, to soften and loosen.

            When heat or cold is manifest in the body, the mindful yogī is aware of tejo element in terms of its characteristics. He knows its function, (rasa) when he knows that it makes things soft and pliant. Thus the yogī has discriminative insight into the nature of nāmarūpa. He is free from the illusion that common people have when they think of tejo element in terms of substance and entity such as hand, man, woman and so forth.

            Vāyo element has the characteristics of stiffness and rigidity. If you sit erect and stretch your back and introspect yourself, you will find rigidity. Again stretch your arm and fix your mind inside the hand. You will find stiffness there. So if you sit and note mentally, "sitting", you become aware of vāyo element in terms of its characteristics. You know it not as an ego, as atman, etc., but as stiffness and this insight into the real nature of vāyo is important.

            But initially the yogī's insight will not be necessarily confined to the reality of stiffness. Ideas of substance, self, and so forth continue to obtrude upon his mind. For in the beginning the average person's concentration is weak and he tends to let his mind wander freely. His mind is usually dominated by sensual desire and other hindrances (nīvarana) that conflict with tranquility and insight-knowledge and impede their progress. As a result, the mind is not confined to the reality of elements. Some teachers would have us believe that all conventional notions go by the board at the outset but this is impossible. It is indeed hard for any beginner to be free from hindrances and pure in mind and belief. Exceptions may be made in the case of those who heard the Dhamma right from the Buddha and attained the holy path but such kind of attainment is unthinkable for other people.

            Vipassanā practice does not help to develop insight in the beginning. While contemplating nāmarūpa, the yogī develops concentration strongly, thereby leaving almost no room for stray thoughts and keeps himself constantly mindful. It is only at this stage of mental purity that there arises the insight into the real nature of nāmarūpa. Even so conventional notions linger before the attainment of insight into the dissolution of all forms of existence (bhaṅgañāṇa). So it is said in Visuddhimagga that at the earlier stage of insight (udayabbayañāṇa) the yogī tends to see "the lights, flowers on the pagoda platform or fishes and turtles in the sea." But later on both the nāmarūpa objects of contemplation and the contemplating mind are found to pass away one after another. Conventional ideas of shape, figure, etc., do not arise any longer. As Visuddhimagga says, "attention is fixed on cessation, disappearance and dissolution."

            Therefore initially the yogī knows only the object that he contemplates in the right way. Rigidity (vāyo) is evident at the moment of lifting the foot, etc. To make us aware of this, the Buddha says, "When he (the yogī) walks, he knows that he is walking." Here the yogī is instructed to be aware only of the fact that he is walking; he is not told to reflect on the vāyo or rigidity. This means that names are not relevant, that what matters most is to see thing as they really are, that the yogī can note them in terms of popular usage. Again vāyo element is manifest in the movement of any part of the body. Awareness of rigidity in such movement or in the abdominal rising and falling means awareness of the real marks of vāyo element. Looseness too is a mark of vāyo. For we speak comparatively when we refer to tightness or looseness of anything.

            It is also the function of vāyo element to move, incline, tilt or displace. The yogī notes the motion of his hands when he bends them and becomes aware of the true nature of vāyo element. He knows it also when he focuses on walking, etc. At such moments he does not think of the object as man, woman, body and so forth. He is aware only of the gradual movement which means the real nature of vāyo element. He is also aware of something pushing or leading another from one place to the other. Thus he knows vāyo by means of the phenomenon that appears on his mental horizon. This is awareness by paccupaṭṭhãna which the scriptures describe as "Abhinihara paccupaṭṭhāna-the phenomena which appears as leading.

            All the three primary elements-pathavī, tejo and vāyo are to be known only by experience. You cannot know them by hearing, etc. You can hear the sound of something but you cannot say whether it is coarse or soft, hot or cold, rigid, stable or moving Neither will its smell, taste or visual form tell you anything about its primary quality. Yet it is a popular belief that we can identify the primary elements by seeing.

            No doubt a rock or a block of iron apparently gives us the impression of hardness. But this is not due to seeing. It is merely an inductive generalization based on past experience. What we know by seeing is only the visual form which sometimes gives a false impression as is evident when we tread on what we believe to be solid ground and stumble into a quagmire or when we get burnt by handling a heated iron bar unknowingly.

            Nor can we know vāyo element by seeing. For it is an element that we can know only empirically. We see that an object is moving because we see it here and there and the idea of its motion is only an inference from our observation of its displacements. Yet when one of the two trains at rest starts moving, the other train appears to be in motion and to a traveller in a fast moving train, the trees appear to be running in the opposite direction. These optical illusions bear out the fact that we cannot rely on our eyes for the truth about motion.

            Once an elderly layman who was interested in meditation told us about his dialogue with a monk-teacher. Taking a pillow and shaking it, he asked the monk, "Now, Sir, what dhammas do you see passing away?"

            "Well, I see the vāyo element passing away."

            "Sir, you are wrong. What you see with your eyes is only the visual form. If you are mindful at the moment of seeing, you know only what happens to the visual form. You cannot know empirically anything about vāyo element at the moment of seeing. Vipassanā is a practice that gives priority to what is to be known actually by introspection. It is only afterwards that other facts are to be noted and realized by reasoning. It is natural to contemplate each sense-object only through its respective sense-organ. Vāyo is an object that is known only through body-contact. We can know the motion of vāyo if we introspect while walking, bending, etc. Now without being in contact with vāyo, you say that you know its dissolution. What you say is unnatural and wrong."

            There is much truth in my informant's criticism. Instead of relying on Satipaṭṭhāna and other suttas for information, some teachers give purely speculative instructions on the basis of Abhidhammā books that deal with natural phenomena exclusively. There are yogīs who practise according to these instructions, the practice may benefit them spiritually but they cannot rely on it for the attainment of real insight and stages on the holy path. The only exceptions are a few gifted yogīs who gain insights through speculative introspection.

            The best thing to do is to follow the Buddha's instruction in Satipaṭṭhāna sutta and contemplate the psycho-physical phenomena that arise from the six senses. This is, as the Buddha says, eka yāno maggo; "the only way". In the case of body-sense corresponding to body-consciousness we should note and recognize the body-impression when we are aware of any body- contact internally or externally. Otherwise the impression tends to dominate us in conjunction with avijjā and other defilements. We tend to harbour illusions of permanence, happiness and ego-belief. Thus through contact we become attached to certain parts of the body, we consider them permanent and make distinctions according to our preferences. If we note every contact and realize their sensory, impermanent, unsatisfactory and insubstantial nature, there is no attachment and we are on the right path of vipassanā that will certainly lead to enlightenment and Nibbāna.

            Body-sensitivity (kāyapasāda) is a quality that pervades the whole body when it is in a healthy condition. There are many things such as clothes, air and others that can give the body tactile impressions. The body, too, possesses many things, e.g., hair, skin, that lend themselves to contact. Thus there are always both external and internal objects of contact for the body-sensitivity. Reflection will point clearly to the possibility of contact in every part of the body and there is no place, however small, that does not admit of contact and this contact gives rise to body-consciousness.

            From the conjunction of the body-sensitivity, object of contact and body-consciousness there arises impression (phassa) that is very obvious. Pleasant impression of contact gives rise to pleasant feeling while unpleasant impression results in painful feeling. The deeper the impression the more intense is the feeling.


            Monoviññāṇa that thinks, conceives and cognizes has its origin in the mind and mind-objects. The mind which forms its basis is the bhavaṅgacitta that we have from the moment of conception. It occurs ceaselessly according to kamma. It is the basis for perception and cognition. When we sleep or when the mind is otherwise occupied, our mental life is all bhavaṅga citta. It becomes active in the face of mind-objects and there arise intention and cognition. So we can think and know only on the basis of bhavaṅga. True, this citta is always present in the absence of intention and cognition but bhavaṅga can lead to mental events only when it is strong.

            At times we cannot think because we are drowsy or our thinking may be futile in spite of our effort and this is due to weakness of bhavaṅga. Thus bhavaṅga by itself serves little purpose. It becomes active only when it is called bhavaṅgacalana, active bhavaṅga or bhavaṅgāppaccheda, bhavaṅga with its stream cut off. This last bhavaṅga gives rise to intention and cognition. According to the commentaries, avijjana (advertence of the mind towards the object) is also to be considered the basis for mental activity. Avajjana forms the first stage in the consciousness-process. It arises as the inquiring state of mind in regard to the object. If it is alert and sharp, it is mindful of all the essential facts and objects.

            The good writer considers the important facts for his book and the good speaker chooses appropriate words for his speech thereby making their writtings and speeches perfect. Further, this avajjana leads to good or bad kammic consciousness according as it is bent on good or bad objectives. It is open to introspection and cognition since we can know actually that intention and awareness arise from avajjana. So the words: "manañja-mind as the basis" should be understood as reference also to avajjana.

            Equally vital to mental activity is the mind-object. The object always arises when we reflect. In the absence of mind-objects mental activity is impossible. Thus sometimes we wish to think but have to give up thinking because we cannot recall the essential facts or objects. Hence mental activity depends on the conjunction of the mind (bhavaṅga), inquiring mind (avajjana) and the mind-objects.

            According to the commentaries, the heart forms the physical basis of all mental events. But today Western doctors have removed the diseased heart of a patient and replaced it with a good substitute. The experiment was not a complete success but the press reports say that the transplanted heart functioned for a few days. This news may raise doubts about the role of the heart in the mental life of mankind.

            This question admits of two explanations. Although the heart is removed, its potency may not become extinct and bhavaṅga citta may still linger in its place just like the tail of a house-lizard that moves after it has been cut off. Moreover, the bhavaṅga-citta may become active again when the transplant gets a new lease of life from the bood of the body, just as the new tissue or new eye ball that is engrafted has new sensitivity. Or we can dispose of the question on the basis of Abhidhammā piṭaka. for Paṭṭhāna, one of the Abhidhammā books, describes the physical basis of manoviññāṇa (mind) simply as "that physical organ which conditions the mind as its basis." It does not specifically mention any organ or part of the body. Thus according to this canonical book, we may assume that a certain part of the body is the seat of the mind, perhaps it is a certain part of the heart or the head. Those who do not wish to locate the mind in the heart may regard the head as its physical basis.

            Here we must mention the analogy of the spider and the evolution of mind as set forth in the commentary on Abhidhamma piṭaka. The spider builds a web which is a kind of net for catching flies. It can do so instinctively in a matter of days after its birth whereas by contrast even a year-old child can do nothing for himself. The spider waits in the center of its web, eats up any creature that gets entangled there and returns to its abode. In the same way the bhavaṅga or manoviññāṇa has the heart as its abode and like the threads of the spider's web connecting its abode and its surroundings, the blood pumped by the heart flows through the blood-vessels and spreads all over the body. So the visual image in the eye stirs the bhavaṅga citta in the heart and turns it into eye-consciousness and so on through its process (vīthi). It (bhavaṅga) them turns back to its original seat. The same may be said of sound, smell, etc., with their respective sense-organs.

            It is now clear that bhavaṅga together with its original activity, that is, thinking and knowing forms the mainspring of our mental life. When there is a visual object, the eye-consciousness arises with the eye as its basis and then the manoviññāṇa reflects on it. The same is true of the ear-consciousness, etc., with ear, the nose and the tongue as their bases. As for the body-consciousness its sphere is extensive as it depends on the size of the body.

            When the sense-objects are not apparent, the manoviññāṇa or the mind that comprises thinking and knowing holds sway over the mental life. Sometimes we are so much absorbed in thought that we remain unmindful of all sense-objects. Preoccupation with an important matter may even make us sleepless. We are then dominated by thoughts that arise ceaselessly one after another on the basis of mental ativity as conditioned by bhavaṅga, avajjana and mind-objects. To the yogī who notes every thought as it arises, these thoughts will appear to arise and vanish separately in fragments.

            Every mental event depends on the conjunction of mind, mind-object and cognition. This is followed by contact with mental images. These images which may be real or unreal, existent or non-existent are present in imagination whenever we think or intend to do something. This is familiar to those who have read, for example, the jātaka stories. Reading these stories give rise to mental images of cities and kings that are coloured by Myanmar beliefs and traditions. They are far from historical truth for since the stories have their origin in India, people and places described in the jātakas must have conformed to the Indian culture and way of life.

            Modern novels evoke images of towns, villages, men, women, criminals and so forth. The reader knows that all these are purely fictitious and imaginary and yet while he is reading, they appear as real and hence the delight, sorrow and other emotions that as good story arouses in him. All this is due to contact with mental images.

            As the Buddha says in Brahmajāla sutta, "these teachings and beliefs stem from vivid imagination that makes them clear and real." In short, vivid imagination is necessary when we speak, write, hold a belief or think or just let the mind wander freely.

            Imagination leads to feeling. Pleasant images cause pleasant feeling as do, for example, images related to our past affluence or the prospect of becoming affluent in future. On the other hand, unpleasant images make us unhappy. To think of the past suffering is to revive unpleasant memories and equally unpleasant is the anticipation of the troubles and arises that might beset us in future. The cause of such unpleasantness may be purely imaginary as in the case of people who grieved over the reported death of a relative only to learn later that he was still alive.

            The image that is neither pleasant nor unpleasant will give rise to neutral (upekkhā) feeling. We are then neither happy nor unhappy. Indeed we have the impression of having no feeling at all but this indicates simply the subtle nature of upekkhā vedanā which, according to the commentaries, is to be known by the analogy of the tracks of the deer.

            When a deer runs across a large rock the track is lost since the animal leaves no footprints on it. But if the footprints are to be found on both sides of the rock, we conclude that the deer has run across the rock. Likewise, the yogī is well aware of the pleasant or unpleasant feelings. When he has upekkhā vedanā he does not notice it and is mindful only of seeing, hearing and so forth. But after that he has again pleasant or unpleasant feeling and so he concludes that he has had neutral (upekkhā) feeling while being mindful of ordinary mental events.

            So the Buddha says: "Conditioned by the mind and mind-object manoviññāṇa arises; the conjunction of mind, mind-object and manoviññāṇa leads to sense-contact and because of sense-contact, there is feeling."

            This is purely a process of cause-and-effect relationship that has nothing to do with a being, an ego, creator or any happening by chance. By the Pāḷi word "dhamma", the teaching refers to the five sense-objects as well as the imagined objects. The five sense-objects again become the focus of mental activity. So monoviññāṇa involves all the six sense-objects, that is, what one has seen, heard, etc., and what one has not seen, not heard, etc. Every sense-object leads to sense-contact which in turn gives rise to feeling.

            For common people these mental events are bound up with the idea of ego, self or atta. Such an idea is an illusion irrelevant to the chain of causation. This is empirically realized by the mindful yogī. He notes every mental event, traces its cause and becomes aware of the bhavaṅga and avajjāna as well as the mind-object. So he knows empirically that every mental event means only the interrelation of cause and effect, leaving no room for ego, creator or chance.

            He knows too that mental activity leads to sense-contact which in turn gives rise to feeling. His knowledge is not bookish but empirical. He follows and notes every mental event. If his mind wanders to his home while he is meditating at a retreat, he directs his attention to it and there is the contact between his mind and its object, viz., the image of the house. In the same way contacts with Shwedagon pagoda or a foreign country occur when he notes and follows the corresponding thoughts that distract his mind. This contact with mind-objects is phassaā.

            Equally clear to the yogī is the feeling that results from sense-contact. While practising meditation, he feels delighted when he happens to think of something that pleases him; sorry when the thought about a sad event occurs to him; inclined to laugh when he thinks of something ludicrous. So he knows that feeling is merely the outcome of sense-contact. But the insight of the yogī who notes nāma-rāpa at every moment of their arising is deeper than this knowledge of the origin of feeling. For as he develops concentration and tranquility (samādhi), he finds that every object of his introspection as well as its subject, that is, consciousness passes away. So he gains a clear insight into the impermanence of all mental events, viz., thinking, feeling, etc., their unsatisfactoriness and unreliability and their impersonal and insubstantial character. Such insight means the empirical realization and appreciation of the Paticasamuppāda or dependent origination.


            In the first part of the discourse we have explained the links in the chain of causation up to the vedanā (feeling) which arises from phassa (sense-contact). To sum up what we have said so far.

            Avijjā is ignorance of the four noble truths. It makes ordinary people blind to the impermanence and insubstantiality of sense-objects. So they think, speak and act in the hope of securing happiness in the present life or hereafter. These deeds in thought, word or bodily actions are either wholesome or unwholesome and they are also called saṅkhāras (kamma-formation).

            The saṅkhāras give rise to new existence. The dying person has flashbacks of his kammic deeds and visions of future life that impress him and condition his new consciousness in a new life. In the absence of any special object that concerns the new consciousness, that latter occurs repeatedly with the death-bed impression of his precious life as its object.

            This bhavaṅga citta becomes active at the moment of seeing, etc. Then there arises eye consciousness that is dependent on the eye and visual form. It is part of the state of consciousness, that is, the whole mental life as conditioned by saṅkhāra. What we see, hear, etc may be pleasant or unpleasant and the corresponding nature of eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, etc is due to the ethical character of our past deeds, that is the wholesomeness or un-wholesomeness of the kammas in the past existence.

            This applies to all the six types of consciousness that arises from six sense-objects. The last type of consciousness implicit in mental activity comprising thinking, imagining, willing, etc is dependent on bhavaṅga citta, avajjāna citta (mental advertance), the physical basis and the mental image. This mental activity (manoviññāṇa) involves seven thought-moments (javana) and two other thought-moments (tadārammana). Here tadārammana is the product of good or bad kamma. Javana is not such a product but in Abhidhamma it is labelled saṅkhāra-based viññāṇa in that it arises from bhavaṅga, the product of saṅkhāra.

            Together with the arising of viññāṇa, there also arises other concomitant psycho-physical phenomena (cetasika and rūpas). Thus viññāṇa leads to nāma-rūpa. But viññāṇa is followed also by the six āyatana (sense-organs) and six phassas (sense-impressions). Phassa means the conjunction of the mind, the mind-object and the sense-organ. It gives rise to vedanā (feeling) which may be pleasant or unpleasant or neither pleasant nor unpleasant. The last kind of feeling which is called upekkhā vedanā gives us the impression of the absence of any feeling but according to Abhidhamma it is in fact a kind of subtle pleasure that implies only the absence of unbearable pain.


            Because of pleasant or unpleasant feeling, there arises taṇhā. Taṇhā means perpetual craving or hunger. It craves for sensual objects that it does not have or it craves for more of the objects that it already has. It knows no satiety or satisfaction. For all the sensual objects to gratify it, its hunger is insatiable.

            So a deva said that devas are like petas in that just as the petas are very hungry because of lack of anything to eat or drink in their realm, so also devas are always hungry although they indulge in all kinds of sensual pleasure. This sounds quite plausible. For the life-span of a Tāvatimsā deva means millions of years on earth and the life is still longer in other higher deva-worlds such as Yāma, Nimmānarati. Yet in spite of their ceaseless and fabulously lifelong enjoyment of pleasure, the devas are never satisfied because their taṇhā is insatiable.

            The same is true of human beings. Poor people seek sensual pleasure to the best of their ability. Of course because of their poverty, they can never fulfil all their desires but equally insatiable is the craving of the rich, the high officials and the upper crust of society. This is due to the nature of taṇhā. The more it is fed, the more hungry it becomes and so it is worse among the rich than among the poor, more oppressive in wealthy countries than in poor countries.


            Taṇhā is never tired of seeing pleasant objects, man or woman whom it likes. It seeks sweet sounds. It hungers for good scent, good food and good drinks. It craves for tactile sensation and this is surely the worst craving for people who love sensual pleasure. Taṇhā also means liking for mind-objects that are impervious to the eye, the ear and other physical organs. It is the object that we can know only mentally. According to the scriptures it means the five sensitive (pasāda) rūpas, the four subtle elements such as āpo, etc., the mental elements (cetasikkas) concepts of forms, qualities, names, etc.

            People crave for good pasāda-rūpas because they want to see clearly, to hear distinctly, or to have keen sense of touch. They seek āpo elements as they wish to keep their mouth, throat and skin moist. They delight in the consciousness of their own sex and the opposite and hence their craving for manhood and womanhood. They want to live long and to move lightly, and this desire shows their hunger for the fine rūpas of jīvita and kāyalahuta, etc. Their desire for happiness, good memory and good intelligence points to their craving for certain mental faculties. Love of one's own physical appearance and that of the opposite sex as well as the desire for praise and fame again shows the hunger for concepts.

            For six sense-object there are six kinds of craving. These six cravings may mean merely the love of sensual pleasure (kāma taṇhā). This love may be combined with the illusion of permanence (bhava taṇhā), taṇhā that implies the eternity-belief. Craving is also bound up with the belief in annihilation which makes some people overly attached to sensual pleasure (vibhava taṇhā). So there are six cravings (corresponding to six sense-objects) for each of the three taṇhas (kāmataṇhā, bhavataṇhā and vibhavataṇhā) or 18 cravings. Each of these cravings may have internal objects or external objects and this leads to 36 kinds of craving. Since each craving may relate to the present, past or future, there are thus a total of 108 kinds of taṇha. But all kinds of craving boil down to three kinds of taṇhās. vis., kamma-, bhava-and vibhava-taṇhās.

            People who are in contact with unpleasant sense-objects long for pleasant objects. Those who suffer pain seek freedom from it. In short, according to the commentary, the suffering person longs for happiness. People seek freedom from pain, poverty and unpleasant objects and feelings. Absence of suffering means happiness (sukha). We seek freedom from preoccupation with unpleasant thoughts, from worry about food, clothing and shelter. But once a man is well provided with the necessities of life, he tends to develop other cravings. Says the commentary, "The wealthy man wants to increase his wealth." For it is in the nature of taṇhā to be insatiable. We wish to enjoy the good things of life repeatedly; we wish to increase out possessions. The more we have, the more we want and the higher the quality of life is, the greater is the desire to enhance it. Taṇhā never comes to an end for it is fueled and perpetuated by vedanā or feeling.

            As regards the taṇhā associated with upekkhā (neutral) feeling, the commentary describes the concomitant feeling as pleasant (sukhā) because of its poise and subtlety. In the case of our contact with ordinary sense-objects, neither the pleasant feeling nor unpleasant feeling is apparent; but since this upekkhā feeling is fine and subtle it is tinged with (sukha) pleasantness and hence it makes us crave for more definite pleasure. It leads to discontentment with the ordinary sense-objects and kindles the desire for better food, better clothes, better sense-contacts and better living conditions.

            In short, pleasant sense-objects create attachment and craving for better object. Unpleasant objects create the desire to be rid of them. When the sense-objects produce neither pleasant nor unpleasant feelings, we are still discontented with our lot and crave for better things. All these show how vedanā gives rise to taṇhā.


            Simultaneously with the arising of consciousness at the moment of seeing, etc., there arise nāmarūpa, āyatana, phassa and vedanā. For every ordinary person who is not yet free from defilements, vedanā (feeling) leads to taṇhā. Taṇhā in turn causes upādāna (clinging) that makes him do a good or a bad deed (kammabhava). Under certain conditions, kammabhava gives rise to rebirth that makes living beings subject to old age, sickness, death, grief and all other mental and physical sufferings. This is how feelings lead to samsāric dukkha.

            Nobody can prevent the arising of nāmarūpa, āyatana, phassa and vedanā as concomitants of viññāṇa. The Buddha and the Arahats, too, have pleasant, unpleasant or neutral (upekkhā) feelings as a result of contact with sense-objects. They feel pain that arise from physical affliction. But they do not suffer mentally; nor do they take delight in pleasant sensations. So they are free from craving and attachment. They do not strive far pleasure and happiness and because of their non-kammic way of life, they do away with rebirth, nāmarūpa and other causes of suffering. This is the extinction of dukkha for the Arahat who is completely free from defilements.

            So it is said, "Due to the complete extinction of taṇhā, that is rooted in pleasant or unpleasant feeling on the Ariyan path, there arises the extinction of upādāna" (clinging).

            Experience of the pleasant or unpleasant feelings make the non-Arahats crave for the good things of life. But it has no effect on the person who has attained Arahatship after passing through the successive stages on the holy path. This may sound incredible to the common people but in fact the most alluring sense-object has no appeal for the Arahat and he takes no interest in his welfare. He is therefore wholly free from craving and attachment and this means complete extinction of kammic effort, rebirth and its attendant suffering.

            So it is said, "The extinction of upādāna leads to the extinction of the cause of rebirth (kammic effort). The extinction of kammic effort leads to extinction of rebirth. Extinction of rebirth leads to extinction of old age, death, grief, etc.


            In short, with the complete extinction of taṇhā due to Arahatship, there is the complete extinction of all its consequences and this means the extinction of suffering. It does not imply the disappearance of happiness or a living being. It is simply the cessation of the nāmarūpa process that is the source of dukkha.

            Just as Arahatship means complete extinction of craving, the attainment of anāgāmi stage on the path means extinction of sensuous craving together with rebirth in the sensual world, old age, death, etc. At the sotāpanna stage the yogī is assured of extinction of all craving that may lead to the lower worlds or more than seven existences. So he is free from all suffering of the lower worlds and the suffering for more than seven lifetimes in the sensual worlds. Thus implicit in the Paticcasamuppāda is the lessening of dukkha with the weakening of taṇhā.

            Likewise, the vipassanā insight ensures the momentary extinction of taṇhā. The arising of six sense-objects leads to pleasant or unpleasant feeling and in the absence of vipassanā insight it finally ends in taṇhā and its attendant suffering.

            But as for the yogī who practises constant mindfulness and has developed vipassanā insight, he finds only the arising and passing away of all phenomena, their impermanence, suffering and impersonality. He also finds that the pleasant or unpleasant feeling arises and passes away instantly. So he does not delight in the feeling that arises, he does not crave for another feeling; he is free from all craving.

            Extinction of craving on the Ariyan holy path differs from extinction by vipassanā in that in the former case the extinction is permanent and it concerns every sense-object whereas in the latter case extinction is neither permanent nor universal. Taṇhā is extinct only at the moment of contemplation and only in respect of the object contemplated. Hence it is called "tadaṅga nibbūti" momentary or partial extinction of defilements.

            The yogī who practises meditation is barely aware of seeing, hearing, etc. This state of bare awareness leaves no room for taṇhā and as the result upādāna (clinging) kamma, rebirth, etc. cease to occur. In other words, with the cessation of taṇhā, the samsāric cycle is partly cut off and this is called tadaṅga nibbūti.


            There is the story of Mahātissa thera in Sri Lanka who overcame taṇhā through the practice of both samatha and vipassanā. One day he left his forest retreat early in the morning and on the way to Anurādha city for his begging round he met a woman who had left her home after quarrelling with her husband. At the sight of the thera, there arose in her a lustful desire and she laughed aloud seductively. On looking at her the thera noticed her teeth. Since he had been contemplating the skeleton, the whole body of the woman appeared as a heap of bones. He concentrated on this mental image and attained jhāna. Then after contemplating the image of the skeleton in his jhānic state of mind, he attained Arahatship.

            The thera continued his journey and on the way met the woman's husband. The man asked him whether he had seen a woman. The thera replied that he did see something but that he did not know whether it was a man or a woman. All that he noticed was a skeleton that passed him on the way.

            What he actually saw was the woman's teeth but his practice of contemplation had turned his impression of her body into the image of a skeleton. Hence in his mind thera was no room for lust or any other defilement arising from his sense-contact with the woman. Then practising vipassanā on the basis of his jhānic consciousness, he became free from defilements and attained Arahatship.

            This story might raise doubts among non-meditating people as regards the arising of the image of a skeleton at the sight of a person's teeth. But without practice one cannot have any clear idea of what mind-training (bhāvanā) can accomplish. The mere exercise of concentration without any training cannot help to create mental images. For these depend on stead-fast and prolonged practice of contemplation. Imagination is the power of perception. Repeated contemplation strengthens perception which then helps create any kind of image of oneself or other people. This faculty of mind is possible even for a parrot as is borne out by a story in the commentary on Satipatthāna sutta.


            A dancer put up for the night at the residence of bhikkhunis and when she went away she left an intelligent parrot. The bird was cared for by the novitiates and it was called Buddha-rakkhita. The abbess of the nunnery thought that it would be good if there was something to contemplate for the bird living among the spiritual aspirants. So she taught her to contemplate "atthi: skeleton".

            One morning the parrot was swooped up by an eagle. In the wake of the hue and cry raised by the young nuns, the eagle became frightened and dropped the parrot. The nuns brought the bird to the Abbess. The Abbess asked it what it contemplated when it was seized by the eagle. The bird replied, "I thought of a skeleton being carried off and I wondered where it would be scattered" The Abbess said, "Well done! This contemplation will contribute to your liberation from samsāric existence."

            A thing that is repeatedly contemplated will become fixed in the long run. Since even a parrot can imagine a skeleton, there is no reason why a human being cannot do likewise. The parrot imagined itself as well as others to be skeletons. Because of this contemplation, it had no fear, anger or worry when it was taken away by the eagle.

            So Satipaṭṭhāna bhāvanā is extolled as a practice that helps to overcome grief and anxiety and to bring about the extinction of mental and physical suffering. But there may be many people who are not as wise as the parrot in the story since they never take interest in the dhamma and contemplate it. The yogī should resolve to surpass the parrot in the practice of vipassanā.

            If Mahātissa thera had failed to regard the laughing woman as a skeleton, he might have become lustful and fallen a victim of temptation in the solitude of the forest. Even if he had no sexual desire; at that time, any impression of the woman would have laid him open to temptation at other times. But thanks to his contemplation of the skeleton in the practice of vipassanā, he overcame defilements and achieved final liberation from samsāric existence. Here the extinction of taṇhā through vipassanā practice is called tadanga nibbuti, partial extinction while extinction through arahatship is called "total extinction."


            So with the total extinction of taṇhā that results from vedanā, there is the extinction of upādāna which means the extinction of all the consequences of craving. Contemplation of anicca, dukkhā and anatta ensures the partial extinction of taṇhā, upādāna, kamma, rebirth, etc. The object of vipassanā practice is to put an end to defilements and samsāric suffering. So it is a matter of paramount importance that deserves the attention of everyone who seeks total liberation. Without this practice pleasant or unpleasant feeling at every moment of seeing, etc., is bound to lead to craving, kamma and rebirth.

            The consciousness involved in every moment of seeing is due to avijjā and saṅkhāra in the previous existence. Seeing occurs together with viññāṇa, nāmarūpa, āyatana, phassa and vedanā. The scriptures treats each of these dhammas separately in terms of their causal relations. But in fact they do not arise separately one after another. If viññāṇa arises from saṅkhāra, it arises together with its respective nāmarūpa, āyatana, phassa and vedanā. All of these dhammas are the results of the past kamma saṅkhāra. They are termed vipākavatta, which means round or cycle of resultants. The round of defilements viz., ignorance, craving and clinging produce round of kamma. viz., kamma and saṅkhāra which leads to round resultants viz., consciousness, nāma-rūpa, sense-organs, contact, feeling which again give rise to the round of defilements.

            The arising of these five resultants at the moment of seeing means to most people simply just seeing. In fact seeing is the product of vaññāṇa, nāmarūpa, āyatana, phassa and vedanā as are other psycho-physical events such as hearing, smelling and so forth.

            Seeing involves consciousness together with mental advertence (manasikāra), volition (cetanā) etc., plus the eye-organ which comprise the nāmarūpa. It also involves four āyatanas viz., eye sensitivity, visual object, eye consciousness and mental advertence (dhammāyatana). Contact with the visual object is phassa and the pleasantness or unpleasantness that the object causes is vedanā. Hence all the five resultants are bound up with every moment of seeing. The same may be said of other phenomena that arise from hearing, smelling and so forth.


            These five psycho-physical resultants or phenomena occur ceaselessly one after another and comprise what we call man, deva, or, living being. These are conventional terms that refer in fact to the collection of the five nāmarūpa elements. There is no solid, monolithic and permanent being. The only reality is the arising and passing away of nāmarūpa and for the mindful yogī this insight means the extinction of craving, clinging, kamma, rebirth suffering a chain of consequences that might result from feeling in the case of common people.

            This is the way to the cessation of the wheel of life (Paṭiccasamuppāda) through the elimination of its key link viz., taṇhā as conditioned by feeling. In order to prevent taṇhā from arising as the result of vedanā at every moment of seeing, the yogī should focus on every phenomenon that arises from six senses. Here the most obvious of these sense contacts is the tactile sensation that concerns gross primary elements (Mahabhūtā) and it is necessary for the beginner to start contemplation with it.

            This way is in accord with the Buddha's teaching in Satipatthana sutta, "Gacchanto vā gacchāmiti pajanāti: (the yogī) knows that he is walking when he walks." How does he know it? He knows it as he notes mentally "walking, walking" He practises mindfulness, too, when he stands, lies, bends his arms, or does anything else. When there is no bodily action or movement to be noted, he should direct his attention to the abdominal rising and falling. He should also note any thought, or mental activity and any feeling that may arise in him. In short, he must be mindful of all the psycho-physical phenomena that arise from the six senses. As concentration develops, such mindfulness leads to insight into anicca, dukkha and anatta, an insight that leaves no room for craving. With the extinction of craving, there is also an end to clinging, and rebirth with all its attendant suffering. This is the way to the cessation of samsāric existence or lifecycle through the elimination of its root-cause-namely, craving.

            Today science and technology have created machines which we cannot run or stop running without a knowledge of their modus operandi. Those who know its secret can operate them by manipulating their key plugs. In the same way the key-note of the life-cycle as described by the doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppāda is that taṇhā is caused by vedanā. But this is true only if vedanā is coupled with two kinds of latent tendencies (anusaya) viz., Santānānusaya and ārammanānusaya. The Arahats are free from these tendencies and so although they have feelings, their craving is extinct. This extinction of craving leaves no room for new kamma, neutralizes old kamma, and there is no more rebirth after their parinibbāna.

            But ordinary people have potential defilements which means not the existence of evil desires lying latent somewhere but only the possibility of their arising under certain circumstances. Hence the Pāḷi term santanānusaya kilesā for this tendency. This potential kilesā may become greed, hatred, ignorance and other evils in the case of those who fail to contemplate the nāmarūpas and so become subject to the illusions of permanancy, happiness and ego-entity. This kilesā which may arise from sense-objects in the absence of vipassanā insight is called ārammanānusaya kilesā.


            Greed and anger that arise in connection with what one has seen or heard are the manifestations of the second kind of latent tendency. The impressions that we retain are those of permanent, lovely or repulsive beings or things. So recall of those images give rise to attachment (lobha), anger (dosa) or illusion of permanency (moha).

            Lobha is another synonym for taṇhā. It is due to pleasant feeling but it may also arise when unpleasant feeling makes us crave for pleasant sensations. Ignorance, too, leads to complacency, attachment and craving. Thus lobha, dosa and moha give rise to feeling which in turn causes craving with its attendant sufferings of samsāric existence. It is only the practice in bare awareness of seeing, hearing etc that rules out the possibility of craving and nostalgia for the pleasant sensations from the senses. Without this practice, craving dominates us and leads to suffering in afterlife as well as here and now.

            In the Mora jātaka the bodhisatta who was then a peacock used to utter a gāthā when he arose in the morning and when he went to sleep in the evening. So for 700 years he escaped the trap set by a hunter. Then the hunter employed a pea-hen as a decoy and enticed by her, the pea-cock forgot to recite the gāhtā and fell into the trap. In Benares there was a harpist called Guttila. He made love to a girl but he was ridiculed and rejected. So at night he sang a very sweet song and played his harp in front of the girl's house. Fascinated by the music, the girl rushed out blindly, stumbled and fell to her death. In the Mora jātaka it was the female voice and here it was the male voice that brought about suffering and death.

            No one can deny that what we hear is impermanent. Everything that we hear vanishes instantly, yet we enjoy songs and music because of their apparent continuity. If we note every sound, "hearing" "hearing" mentally, our realization of their impermanence makes it impossible for our pleasant feelings to become cravings. This means non-arising of upādāna and all its resultant suffering.

            Smell is seldom experienced by the yogī. He must of course note it and see that it does not give rise to craving.

            Mindfulness is especially important in eating. The unmindful person delights in eating good food. He is fond of such pleasure; he craves for it in future and hereafter. This craving for good food and drinks is powerful. It may lead to an existence that makes a person subsist on bad food. Thus according to the Balapandita sutta those who do misdeeds for the pleasure of good food are reborn as animals that eat grass, leaves or human excreta.

            Eating bad food also tends to create the desire for good food. Therefore it is necessary for the yogī to note everything, every movement of his hand, and mouth and every sensation when he is eating. Through this practice of mindfulness, he becomes aware of the vanishing of his actions, sensations and feeling. In this way he gains an insight into impermanence of everything, an insight that leads to the extinction of craving and its attendant suffering.


            Tactile impression is aways present all over the physical body. Thinking, too, is also present all the time except when the yogī goes to sleep. So thoughts and tactile impressions form the objects of vipassanā practice for most of the time. The yogī contemplates the tactile impressions when he has nothing else to engage his attention.

            He notes his thoughts even though they happen to be unpleasant and undesirable. The beginner in meditation is often subject to such distractions, but they usually disappear as he gains practice and develops concentration. Thoughts about the Dhamma occur to some yogīs from time to time and these should be noted. Introspection of these thoughts also ensures insight into impermanence and the extinction of suffering.

            Here some may wonder what this description of vipassanā practice has to do with the discourse on Paṭiccasamuppāda. The doctrine points out the chain of consequences as conditioned by their respective causes and our object is to show the way to the end of samsāric suffering that finally results from the interplay of these causes and consequences. So we have to describe the practice wherever it is relevant. Thus when it is said that "avijjā leads to saṅkhāra and saṅkhāra to rebirth" we have to show the way to remove avijjā. So also in connection with viññāṇa, etc., that finally bring about dukkha, it is necessary to stress the need for removing the link between vednā and taṇhā that is the maincause of dukkha.


            If feeling (vedanā) that arises from contact with sense-objects is not rightly contemplated, it leads to one of the three kinds of craving viz., craving for sensual pleasure, craving for existence and craving for non-existence.

            The first kind of craving (kāmataṇhā) is focussed on sensual objects and it is most prevalent among the living beings of the sensual world.

            The craving for existence (bhavataṇhā) is bound up with the eternity-belief (sassata-diṭṭhi). It presupposes the permanence of a living being, and the indestructibility of the ego despite the dissolution of the physical body. The belief is not deep-rooted among the Buddhists. But non-Buddhists hold it so firmly that it is a major impediment to their spiritual liberation. Their craving for existence is evident in their illusion of permanent self and their love of sensual pleasure.

            The craving for non-existence (vibhava-taṇhā) is born of the annihilation belief (uccheda-diṭṭhi). The belief is not found among Buddhists and no one is a true Buddhist if he or she holds the belief. The craving for non-existence means the desire for the automatic cessation of the life-stream after death as well as the love of pleasure rooted in the materialistic view of life.

            Each of these three cravings stems from the failure to realize anicca, dukkha and anatta through the introspection of feelings. So in order to forestall craving and its consequences, namely, rebirth and suffering, the yogī should contemplate every phenomenon and try to see everything as it really is.


            From craving there arises clinging (upādāna)-The Pāli term upādāna is a compound of upa, Intense, extreme and ādāna-grasp, take and so it means to grasp firmly, or intense, obsessive craving. Clinging is of four kinds (1) clinging to sensuous objects (2) clinging to false views (3) clinging to irrelevant, non-Ariyan practices as the way to salvation and (4) clinging to atta-or ego-belief.

            (1) Clinging to sensual objects: Sensual objects excite the desire of all living beings who are not free from the craving for sensual pleasure. These objects are five in number viz., visual form, sound, odour, taste and contact.

            Visual form is the object that is pleasant and attractive to the eye. It may possess natural beauty or it may appear to be beautiful in the eyes of the viewer. Pleasant visual form, whether real or apparent, is to be found in men, women and consumer goods. It is the physical appearance of females that attracts the males and vice-versa. The things that both men and women desire are clothes, jewellery, cars, etc. It is not merely the form or colour that excites desire. Man and woman are drawn towards each other not only by the complexion but by the whole body of the opposite sex, and the same may be said of consumer goods that make people greedy. Form or colour only serves to introduce or identify the object of desire just as the cry of an animal helps the hunter to track and find it out.

            Sound as the object of sensual pleasure is represented by the voices of men and women, songs or music. Some sounds and voices are really sweet while some only appear to be sweet in our ears. Again it is not the mere sound that attracts us for when we delight in hearing a sound or a voice, the whole thing or the being that produces it forms the focus of our attachment.

            Odour as the source of sensual pleasure comprises all kinds of scents: scent of flavours, powder, fragrant essence. Men and women apply these odoriferous substances to their bodies and delight in these scents. But it is not the scents alone but the whole physical body giving out the scent that attracts people.

            The sensual pleasure that we have by eating or drinking is rooted in food and drinks. The good or pleasant taste may be real or apparent. For pigs, dogs and other animals, garbage, refuse and filth may be a source of sensual pleasure. Some people are very fond of bitter or spicy food. Some like intoxicants. Their pleasure is more apparent than real since normal ordinary people do not share their tastes. The pleasure of eating is not confined to food; it centers also on the preparation of food and the man or woman who prepares it. This is evident in the pleasure of a man who enjoys eating the food prepared by his wife although her culinary skill may not impress other people.

            Another source of sensual pleasure is the body or tactile impression. Soft and smooth bed, comfortable clothing, something warm in cold season and something cold in hot season, the body of opposite sex-all these form the objects of contact that create not only the craving for the tactile impression but also the craving for the whole body of the living or non-living object. The tactile impression only serves to pave the way for attachment to the whole body.


            Then there are living and non-living objects that form the sources of sensual pleasure. There are gold, silver, jewellery, rice, cattle, poultry, vehicles, house, land, attendants. Men work daily to secure these sources of pleasure. They seek these things to have good food, good clothes and good houses, to see movies and so forth.

            Sensual desire (taṇhā) usually leads to intense craving for sensual objects (kāmupādāna). When a man starts smoking, he delights in his new habit but as the habit grows upon him he becomes addicted to it. Thus we become excessively fond of certain objects and we feel restless and discomfited if we do not get them. In this way taṇhā develops into upādanā (clinging, grasping or infatuation).

            Upādāna cannot come into being without taṇhā. The music and songs of foreigners do not appeal to Myanmar ears and so there is no craze for them among the people. Myanmar people do not eat dogs. Dog's flesh is abhorrent to them and so there can be no upādāna in regard to it.

(2) Ditthupādāna (Bigotry)

            Another kind of upādāna is ditthupādāna which means clinging to false views. It covers all the false views exclusive of those in the categories of the third and fourth upādāna. So every false belief is to be regarded as upādāna. Here we will describe at length ten false views that have a firm grip on the people.

            The first view is that alms-giving is not a good kammic act, that it means only a waste of money. This view rejects the sense of values and the fruits of a good act. It has, however, no basis in fact. The act of dāna makes the donor joyful. It benefits the recipient physically and mentally and it may even help to save the life of a starving man. The donor is popular and highly esteemed. After his death he attains the deva-world. It is hard to convince the skeptic of this post-mortem reward. But these other-worldly results of kamma come within the purview of Arahats and other holy men with psychic powers. One of these powers is the ability to see with divine-eye (dibbacakkhu). This psychic power enables one to see donors prospering in deva-worlds or evil-doing non-donors suffering in the lower worlds. Such visions can be had even by some yogīs who have not acquired psychic powers but developed much samādhi. Again some may dismiss these visions as figments of imagination but the agreement of these accounts about the other worlds lends weight to their credibility.

            The second false view is also a negation of the kammic benefits for alms-giving on a grand scale.

            The third false view rejects the kammic benefits of feeding guests, giving on new year day and so forth. This view is essentially the same as the third view. It refers to small acts of dāna that were in vogue in ancient India but were dismissed as futile by heretics.

            The fourth view denies the kammic result of any morally good or evil act. There is a lot of evidence for the kammic effects of a man's acts in this life and as for the other-worldly result of an act, those with psychic power can testify to it. But people who are excessively fond of sensual pleasure like to give free rein to their desires. They frown on moral values and ideals which they regard as a hindrance to their material progress. So they put forward many arguments to justify their rejection of the kammic law. In the final analysis all this is due to their excessive love of sensual pleasure.

            The fifth and sixth view deny any respect, honour or support that we owe to our parents for all their loving care in our childhood. It is said that a man and his wife get children through sexual intercourse by accident, that they bring up the children from a sense of responsibility, and so there is no reason why children should be grateful to their parents. So it is not a good deed on the part of a man to look after his parents nor is it an evil to wrong them. It is a terrible view; those who hold it will not be respected by their children.

            The senventh view denies the existence of any world other than the human and the animal worlds. It also rejects the belief that an animal may be reborn as a human being.

            The eighth view denies rebirth of a human being in deva or animal worlds or in hell. It preaches annihilation of life after death.

            The ninth view denies rebirth by opapāṭīkā or spontaneous generation. In other words, it denies the existence of devas, brahmas, petas, asuras, etc., who appear with their full-fledged bodies without being conceived in the womb. This view is untenable since encounters with good or evil spirits are reported from all over the world, there are mediums and witch-doctors who can invoke spirits, and devas, Brahmas, etc., are sometimes visible to the yogīs who practise vipassanā.

            The last view is that there is no ascetic or Brahman who speaks of this world and the other invisible world and who conforms to his teaching. The view implies that there is no person who can speak independently about this world and the other world on the basis of his actual extra-ordinary experience, that all their teaching is guess-work and speculation and so false and evil.

            Today this view is echoed by those who scoff at religion. They reject the existence of Buddhas and Arahats who know the world as it really is through their own effort. But the logic underlying this view is self-defeating. For by the same kind of reasoning, one can reject the view since those who hold it also do not know anything about this or the other world really.

            As for the Buddha-dhamma, it rests on extraordinary insight. (sayaṃ abhiññā desitā). As such it lends itself to empirical investigation and there is much scientific evidence for it.

            The man who preached the Indian brand of agnosticism in the time of the Buddha was Ajita. He attacked all religious teaching without qualification and so it is to be assumed that the arahats and the Buddha, too, were the targets of his denunciation.


            All these ten wrong views boil down to the denial of the law of kamma. For the rejection of kamma means rejection of any benefit accruing from the acts of dāna and reference to parents, and other good deeds, as well as the kammic potential for arahatship or Buddhahood. Like-wise the ten right views mentioned below are based on the belief in kamma, or moral retribution.

            (1) The first view is that dāna is beneficial. One who gives alms is admired at least by the recipients. They will respect him, praise him and help him when he is in trouble. He dies calmly with good death-bed visions and after his death he attains good rebirth in deva-worlds or in human society. His good rebirth may finally lead to the Ariyan path and Nibbāna. It was usually with an act of dāna that the bodhisatta, and others embarked on their long spiritual journey leading to the goal of Buddhahood, paccekabuddhahood or arahatship.

            The kammic effect of alms-giving is also evident in the material prosperity of some people. Some people do the same job such as business, farming, etc., but differ in their accomplishments. Some become prosperous while others make no progress materially. Some meet with success without working hard while others fail to prosper despite their hard work. Other things being equal, this disparity in the fortunes of some persons is no doubt due to dāna or lack or dāna in a previous life.

            (2) and (3) The man who believes in the law of kamma will have no doubt about the kammic potency of giving alms lavishly or the small acts of dāna such as feeding the guests, giving presents and so forth.

            (4) These three right views are implicit in the law of kamma or moral retribution. That a man fares according to his good or bad deeds is an undeniable fact of life. A man who leads a good life in accordance with the instruction of his parents and teachers is popular, gets help from others and achives success and when he grows up, he becomes a prosperous gentleman. Similarly because of good kamma in a previous life a man may be born of a good family and blessed with health, wealth, physical beauty and sincere friends. The bad effect of evil kamma such as ill-health, poverty, ugliness, etc., are equally well-known to every body.

            (5) and (6) The belief in kamma also implies a recognition of our deep gratitude to parents. Parents take care of their children from the time of their conception. The mother is especially careful about her health, her food, and movements for the sake of the child in her womb. If she is a good Buddhist, she keeps sabbath and contemplates the Buddha, Dhamma and Saṅgha in the hope of influencing her child spiritually. After the birth of the child, the parents have to attend to his physical needs, and educate him and when he comes of age, they have to give him financial support for a start in life. For these reasons, it is our bounden duty to revere and care for our parents; and this is a kammic act that benefits us immensely. At the very least a man who respects his parents will be respected by his children while a man who wrongs his parents is very likely to be disdained by his children.


            (7) (8) and (9) The right views about the existence of this world, the invisible world and the living beings such as the devas who come into existence by spontaneous materialization. These right views are also implicit in the belief in the law of kamma. For the law of kamma makes it possible for a living being from the animal or deva world to pass on to human world or vice-versa according to his kamma after death. This can be demonstrated to a certain extent but the observer will have to possess psychic powers, vipassanā insight or the ability to think rationally.

            Through the practice of samatha jhāna, a yogī can acquire the power of recalling the past lives; he can have the divine-eye (dibbacakkhu) that affords him a glimpse into the physical appearance, etc of a person who has passed on to a new existence. This psychic power is also accessible to those who practise vipassanā.

            Those who cannot practise samatha or vipassanā will have to depend on their power of reasoning. There are certain persons here and there who can recall their previous lives, people who are credited with jātissa-rañāṇa in Buddhist literature. They describe their past lives as human beings, animals, spirits or ghosts. To the rational mind, these accounts clearly point to the post-mortem transition from this world to the other world and vice versa as well as to the instant materialization of certain beings.

            Here we wish to mention the way of thinking on the issue of a future life suggested by wise men. Suppose a man accepts the belief in kamma and life after death while another man rejects the belief. The second man will not do good deeds such as dāna, sīla and he will not avoid doing evil. He will give free rein to his desires. Therefore he has no virtue that is worthy of respect and admiration by other people. If contrary to his belief, the law of kamma and a future life are real, he is bound to land in the lower worlds immediately after his death and suffer for many lifetimes throughout his samsāric existence.

            On the other hand, the man who believes in kamma and afterlife will avoid evil, do good and so even if there is no kamma or a future life, he will be extolled and well-known for his good character. He will rejoice at the contemplation of his good deeds. As a good citizen he will lead a peaceful life. These are the benefits that will certainly accrue to him from his belief in kamma in the present life. And if life after death is indeed a fact, he is assured of happiness here-after. So it is reasonable to accept the belief in afterlife since it serves our interests now or in future in any event. This is the infallible way of thinking that the Buddha recommends in Apannaka sutta of Majjhima nikāya.


            (10) Faith in the Buddha, the Arahats or holy men who can claim transcendent knowledge about this and the other worlds and who possess a noble character that lends credence to their teachings-such faith also presupposes the belief in kamma. For the spiritual attainment of Arahats and the Buddha rests in part on their pāramī (perfection) which does not differ essentially from kamma. Developments of pāramī is a kind of learning. Just as a child has to learn many things in order to become well-educated, so also a bodhisatta has to seek knowledge and train himself for the attainment of his goal.

            Some parents and elders take their children to movies and theatres while others take theirs to pagodas and monasteries. In this way the children acquire good or bad habits and develop a craving for sensual pleasure or a taste for the higher things of life. Good habits and good training may be called a kind of pāramī. Some children are spontaneously inclined to religious life, some men and women have immense zeal and energy for the practice of vipassanā. Such a child's unusual interest in religion or a man's unusual love of spiritual life is born of that pāramī in a previous life.

            Prince Siddhattha became the Buddha through the gradual development and perfection of pāramī such as dāna, sīla, nekkhama (renunciation) and so forth over aeons spanning innumerable life-times. It was not a matter of easy accomplishment in a single existence. It was this cumulative kammic potential or pāramī that helped to strengthen his will when he left his family and the luxuries of his royal palace in search of enlightenment. Today some people speak of their disillusionment with life but it is hard for a man to renounce all his wealth and become a monk, let alone to think of the kind of renunciation that distinguished the bodhisatta.

            The bodhisatta cultivated other pāramīs, too, for the sake of wisdom, at energy fortitude and so forth in way of his previous lives. As a result in his last existence he reflected and realized independently the nature of life, its dependent origination, etc. It was his kammic potential (pāramī) that finally led to his supreme enlightenment and likewise it was the pāramī that contributed to the spiritual attainments of Paccekabuddhas and Arahats. Hence the belief in kamma makes it possible for the spiritual aspirant to become the arahat, Paccekabuddha or the Buddha and one who accepts the belief has no doubt about the transcendent knowledge of the Buddha and other holy men.

            In short, diṭṭhupadāna is generally synonymous with rejection of the law of kamma. It was not widespread in the time of the Buddha or even about a hundred years ago. But now it is gaining ground thanks to the books that have criticized the doctrine of kamma in the name of scientific knowledge. As the scriptures say, false beliefs are usually rooted in craving and with man's increasing hunger for material goods, skepticism about kamma is likely to become dominant and it is up to good people to guard themselves against it.

            Apart from the rejection of kamma, ditthupādāna also means strong attachment to all false beliefs e.g. ego-belief, annihilation-belief, etc. The exceptions are the two false beliefs covered by sīlabbatupādāna had attavādupādānā.


            Sīlabbatupādāna is clinging to wrong practices that do not lead to cessation of suffering. It is the view which identifies the habits of cows, dogs and other animals as the way to the end of dukkha. It found expression among some ascetics in the time of the Buddha. Like animals, they lived naked, ate, defecated and went about on all fours, and slept on the ground. They believed that such a way of life served to purge them of all evil kamma and forestall new kammic action, thereby assuring them of an end to suffering and eternal bliss after death.

            To a Buddhist this kind of belief may sound incredible but some people's preferences are very odd and they differ in their views and inclinations. So there came to the Buddha two ascetics, one Puṇṇa who lived like an ox and another Seniya who lived like a dog. They asked the Lord about the benefits of their practice. The Lord was reluctant to answer but when pressed for his view, he replied that an ascetic who committed himself wholly to the habits of an ox or a dog would be reborn as an ox or a dog after death; that it was wrong to believe that such practices led to the deva world; and that one who held a wrong belief was likely to land in hell or in the animal world. Then the Buddha went on to describe (1) the evil practices that bear evil fruits, (2) the good practices that bear good fruits, (3) the evil practices mixes with good practices and (4) the practice of the Ariyan path that leads to the total extinction of good and bad kamma.

            On hearing this sermon Puṇṇa became the disciple of the Buddha. Seniya joined the order and attained Arahatship through the practice of the Dhamma.


            In the time of the Buddha there was a man named Korakhattiya who lived like a dog. One day the Buddha passed by him, accompanied by a Licchavī bhikkhu, Sunakkhatta by name.

            Sunakkhatta saw the ascetic moving on all fours and eating the food on the ground without the help of his hands. The ascetic way of life gave the monk the impression of a holy man, nay, an Arahat who had few desires. In point of fact, the ascetic's mode of life was a kind of sīlabbatupādāna that would lead him to one of the four lower worlds. It was abhorrent to those who had high ideals and aspirations. It had appeal for Sunakkhata only because of his low tastes and desires. The Licchavī monk was exceptional in this respect. There were then not as now many people who preferred false views and false practices that did not accord with the Buddha's teaching. This was probably a hang-over from wrong attachments in their previous lives.

            The Buddha divined Sunakkhatta's thoughts and said, "So you regard that ascetic as an Arahat! I wonder why you do not feel ashamed of being called disciple of the Buddha," The monk then accused the Lord of envying the ascetic's Arahatship. This is of course the kind of retort that is to be expected from an ignorant man when someone speaks the truth about his false teacher. The Buddha explained that his object was to remove the monk's illusions that would do him no good. Then he went on to predict that after seven days the ascetic would die of indigestion, and land in the lowest Asura world; that his body would be dumped in a certain cemetery; that if the monk went there and asked about his present abode, the dead body would reveal it.

            The Buddha made this prophecy in order to restore Sunakkhatta's faith in him. Through the practice of samatha Sunakkhatta had attained jhāna and divine-eye. With his divine-eye he had seen the gods and goddesses and as he wished to hear their voices he asked the Buddha about the way to the attainment of divine-ear. But the Lord declined to fulfil his desire because his bad kamma stood in the way and he would blame the Lord for the non-attainment of divine-ear. Nevertheless, he lost his faith in the Lord because he thought that it was envy that motivated the Lord to refuse his request. So the Buddha predicted the ascetic's fate to impress Sunakkhatta and salvage his faith.

            Sunakkhatta informed the ascetic of the Lord's prediction and warned him against overeating. The ascetic fasted for six days but on the seventh day he could not resist the temptation any longer. He wolfed down the food provided by a lay follower and died of indigestion that very night.

            His fellow ascetics dragged his dead body to dump it in any place other than the cemetery specified in the Buddha's prediction. They got to a cemetery but found it to be the very place they wished to avoid for it had the kind of grass predicted by the Buddha. They tried to drag the body away but the creeper-rope snapped and all their efforts to remove it were in vain. So they had to abandon the corpse there.

            Sunakkhatta heard the news but still he hoped to prove the falsity of the latter part of the Lord's prediction. He went to the cemetery and rapping the dead man asked about his abode. The corpse arose and after saying that he was in Kalakañjika asura abode fell back on the ground. Kalakañjika is the lowest asura abode. Asura is a kind of peta with a monstrous body and a mouth which is so small that it cannot drink and eat well.

            According to the commentary, it was the Buddha's psychic power that made the dead body possessed by the asura peta. Given the ability of some sorcerors to raise the dead, there is no need to have any doubt about the resurrection of the dead ascetic through the psychic power (iddhi) of the Buddha.

            Sunnakkhatta came back crestfallen and had to admit that the Lord's prophecy had come wholly true. Even so, he did not have complete faith in the Buddha. Later on he left the holy order and disparaged the Lord.


         Beside the mode of life of cows and dogs there are other practices that can be described as sīlabbata. Some people emulate the elephants, horses, and so forth. In other words, they worship animals. The commentary refers to king-worshippers which may mean in Myanmar people who worship various nats. Nat-worship among Myanmar people is not motivated by the desire for liberation from samsāra (life-cycle). It stems from the hope for material benefits here and now and as such it does not fall within the scope of sīlabbatupādāna. But it is upādāna over the belief that leads some people to make animal sacrifice in their worship of the nats.

            There are also fire-worship, nāga-worship, moon-worship, sun-worship spirit-worship and so forth. If the object in any kind of worship is to have happiness or spiritual liberation after death, it is sīlabbatupādāna. In short, all practices divorced from the four noble truths and the eightfold path are labelled sïlabbata and attachment to them as the way to salvation is sīlabbatupādāna.

            The yogī who has attained at least the sotāpanna stage through the contemplation of nāma rūpa is well aware of the right path to Nibbāna and so he has freed himself from the belief in sīlabbata. He knows empirically that the way to the end of suffering is only through the intropection of nāma-rūpa and the practice of the eightfold noble path.

            For example, if you know from experience how to go from this meditation centre to Shwedagon pagoda, you will not be misled by anyone who points out the wrong way. Likewise, the yogī at the sotāpanna stage knows the right way to Nibbāna and so he has no illusion about the beliefs and practices such as belief in God, nat worship or asceticism that pass for the way to salvation.

            Those who do not know the right path are not free from such illusion. They may have acquired it from their ignorant parents, teachers or friends; or because of their poor basic knowledge, they might have been misguided by books that advocate false beliefs and practices. The ordinary man (puthujjana) is ignorant of the right path to Nibbāna and so he will have to reckon with many teachers and practices through his samsāric existence. If he falls for a false teacher or a false practice, he is in for a lot of suffering. Thus the practice of austerities will only cause hardships and pain and the performance of animal sacrific will certainly lead to the lower worlds.

            It is also upādāna over sīlabbata to believe that rūpajhāna or arūpajhāna means complete salvation. In short, even the moral perfection or jhānic attainment in the mundane sphere, though commendable, may lead to sīlabbatupādāna if it is divorced from the holy path of vipassanā and regarded as the total liberation. Udaka sutta of Samyutta nikāya refers to the rishi Udaka who having attained the arūpa world through his arūpajhāna declared that he had uprooted the cause of dukkha and made an end of it. This was also the illusion of another rishi called Ālāra. This illusion or upādāna led to their rebirth in the arūpa worlds.

            So in his discourse to Baka brahma the Buddha says: "I see the dangers of birth, old age, death, etc inherent in the three worlds of sensuality, rūpa and arūpa. I see those who seek Nibbāna still bound to existence. So I do not approve of any kind of existence. I have repudiated all attachment to existence."

            Like the two rishis, those who do not know the Buddha's teaching never attain their goal. Although they seek permanent happiness, they follow the wrong path of sīlabbata and remain entangled in the samsāric existence of dukkha. So we can hardly overemphasize the importance of right effort on the right path as pointed out by the Buddha.



            Attavādupādāna is a compound of attavāda and upādāna. Attavāda means belief in-soul entity and atta vādupādāna is attachment to the view that every person is a living soul.

            Attachment to the ego-belief is of two kinds, viz, ordinary attachment and deep-rooted attachment. Ordinary attachment that prevails among ignorant Buddhists is not harmful to progress on the holy path. The belief is not deeply entrenched because Buddhists accept the Buddha's teaching which denies the permanent soul and recognizes nāma-rūpa as the only reality behind a living being. Intelligent Buddhists are still less vulnerable to the belief. For they know that seeing, hearing, etc., involve only the sense-organs (eye, ear, etc.), the corresponding sense-objects (visual form, sound etc.,) and the corresponding states of consciousness.

            But most people are not wholly free from the ego-belief. Even the yogī who practises vipassanā may at times fall for it and it is likely to attract every man who has not attained the holy path.

            In fact those who taught ego-belief described the ego as the owner of the five khandhās, as an independent entity, possessing free-will and self-determination It was this view of atta (soul) that the Buddha questioned in his dialogue with the wandering ascetic Saccaka. Said the Buddha, "You say that this physical body is your atta. Them can you always keep it well, free from anything unpleasant?", Saccaka had to answer in the negative. Further questioning by the Lord elicited from him the reply that he had in fact no control over any of the five khandhās.

            So the ancient Buddhist teachers translate "rūpam anatta" as "the physical body is subject to no control", etc. In fact it is the denial of the "sāmī atta" or the false view of atta as a controlling entity. Every ordinary person holds this view and believes in free-will. He can overcome it completely only through vipassanā contemplation.

            The attavāda teachers also say that atta exists permanently in the physical body. In other words, it means the personal identity that is aid to persist through the whole existence.

            Again, they say that atta is the subject of all actions, thus identifying it with saṅkhārakkhandhā. It is the illusion that creates the belief. "It is I that see, hear etc." 

            They also say that atta is the living entity that feels; that it is atta that is happy or unhappy. In other words, they describe, atta or, soul in terms of vedanā or feeling.

            Thus although the Atmanists (attavādīs) insist that atta has nothing to do with the five khandhās, they credit it with ownership of the body, etc., permanent residence in the body, subjectivity and feeling: and hence in effect they identify it with the five khandhās. The ego-illusion is rooted in the khandhās and a man can free himself completely from it only when he becomes aware of the real nature of khandhās through contemplation.

            Of the four upādāna, the first upādāna, (clinging to sensuality) is the developed form of craving. (taṇhā). The other three upādānas differ only as regards their objects; basically they all relate to beliefs, viz., belief in ego, belief in the efficacy of practices other than those of the eightfold path, and any false belief other than those in the category of the other two upādāna. All false beliefs arise in connection with craving. Men cling to a belief because they like it. Thus there is no doubt that all the four upādānas stem from craving and hence the Buddha's teaching: "From taṇhā there arises upādāna."

            In point of fact, craving is the cause and clinging is the effect. Craving for sensual pleasure, the ego belief, or the practices irrelevant to the holy path or other false beliefs is the cause and this craving develops into clinging to sensuality, ego-belief, etc, and thus becomes effects.


            Upādāna leads to bhava (becoming). There are two kinds of bhava, viz, kamma bhava and upāpatti bhava.


            Kamma bhava means the kamma that leads to rebirth. The Buddha describes it as the puññābhi, apuññābhi and āneñjabhi saṅkhāras that lead to lower sensual world or the higher material and immaterial worlds. He also identifies kamma bhava with all kammas that give rise to new existence.

            Of the three saṅkhāras, puññābhi saṅkhāra comprises the eight wholesome volitions (cetanā) in sensual sphere and five wholesome volitions in the material (rūpa) sphere. Apuññābhi saṅkhāra is the group of twelve unwholesome volitions. Aneñjābhi saṅkhāra means the four wholesome volitions in immaterial sphere. Also leading to rebirth are the kammas that arise together with the wholesome volitions in sensual sphere. viz., having no covetous thoughts or designs about another's possession, having no design against another person's life and holding right views. These kammas are implicit in puññābhisaṅkhāra. In short, kammabhava is the good or bad volition that leads to rebirth.

                                    (2) Upapattibhava.

            Upapattibhava is of nine kinds. (1) kammabhava means the nāmarūpas of living beings in the sensual world. In other words, kammabhava refers to existences in the hell and the worlds of devas, mankind, animals and petas. (2) rūpabhava - -the khandhās of brahmas with no rūpas. (3) arūpabhava the nāmakhandhās of bramas with no rūpas. (4) saññibhava-nāmarūpas of beings with gross perceptions, that is beings in 29 abodes other than asaññi nevasaññi abodes. (5) asaññibhava-nāmarūpa-of asaññi-brahmas. (6) Nevasaññinasaññi-nāma khandhās of higher brahmas (7) ekavokārabhava- the bhava with only rūpekkhndha. (8) catuvokārabhava-the bhava with four namakhandhas. (9) pañcavokarabhava-of bhava with five nāmarūpakkhandhās.

            In short, upapattibhava means the nāmarūpas of the new existence that results from kamma. It comprises the viññāṇa, nāmarūpa, salhayatana, phassa and vedanā.

            The bhava that arises from upādāna is basically kammabhava, the other upapatti bhava being merely its by-product.

            From contact with six pleasant or unpleasant sense-objects there arise six pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Feelings lead to craving and craving develops into clinging, clinging to sensual objects may become excessive to the point of craving for union with one's family in a future life or attainment of Nibbāna hand in hand with one's beloved. The excessive degree of a man's upādāna is evident in the story of the merchant Mendaka.


            Mendaka was a rich merchant in a previous life. In the face of a famine, his stock of provisions gradually ran out and at last he had to send away his attendants and was left with his wife, a son, his daughter-in-law and a slave. His wife having cooked rice that was barely enough for their consumption, they were about to eat it when a paccekabuddha appeare to receive food.

            At the sight of the paccekabuddha, the merchant thought of his bad kamma, that is, lack of dāna in a previous life that had now brought about his starvation. He then offered his share of rice to the paccekabuddha and prayed for abundant supply of food and reunion with the members of his household in his future lives. His wife, too, donated her share of rice and expressed a similar wish in her prayer. The son and his wife followed suit and prayed in the same vein, that is, for unlimited supply of food, and money as well as reunion with the same wife, husband, parents and slaves.

            The prayers of the merchant and his family clearly point to the powerful influence of upādāna in the sensual sphere and most people today are no less subject to the same kind of attachment. But more appalling is the upādāna of the slave Puṇṇa. After offering his share of rice, he prayed for abundance of food and rebirth as the slave of the same family! It never occurred to him to pray for rebirth as a king or a merchant; his attachment to his masters and mistress was so strong that he wanted only to be their slave hereafter.

            Once there was a village headman who stood well with Government officials. Those were the days when under British rule most of the high ranking officials were Englishmen. The headman took much delight in paying respect to them. He said that he enjoyed saying, phayā, "Yes, my Lord," when was called by an officer. His attachment was essentially the same as that of Puṇṇa.

            The paccekabuddha blessed them and departed. By means of his psychic power they saw him fly back to the Himalayas and share the food with five hundred other fellow-Buddhas.

            On that very day the merchant and his family found their acts of dāna being fruit wonderfully. They found the rice pot full of rice. They ate to their hearts, content but the pot was always full of rice. They found their granaries, too, overflowing with grains.

            Their prayers were fulfilled in the life-time of the Buddha-Gotama for they became members of the same household in Baddiya, a city of the Magadha country. The news of the fulfillment of their prayers was so unusual and amazing that the king made an inquiry through a minister and found that it was indeed true. This story is mentioned in Vinaya piṭaka.


            When the sensual desire for an object develops into an intense craving, a person becomes desperate and tries to secure it by fair means or foul. Thefts, robberies, frauds, murders and so forth that are rampant nowadays stem from upādāna. Some crimes are rooted in sensual upādāna while others arise from one of the three kinds of illusion based on upādāna. People commit their crimes not only because of their unwholesome desires but also because of their blind attachment to wives, husbands, etc.

            The following is a story illustrative of the evil kammabhava resulting from sensual upādāna.


            Long ago there was a poor man in Benarese. He had only a suite of thick clothes. He washed it to wear during the Tazaungdine festival. But his wife disliked the white clothes and craved for a garment of pink colour. All his efforts to reason with her being in vain, the man at last sneaked into the royal garden at night to steal the flower that was to be used for dyeing his wife's garment. He fell into the hands of the guards and was ordered by the king to be impaled. He suffered terribly with the crows pecking at his eyes. Yet he murmured that his physical pain was nothing when compared to the mental suffering that overwhelmed him when he thought of the non-fulfillment of his wife's desire and his inability to enjoy the festival together with her. So crying over ill-luck, he died and landed in hell.

            Today there may be many people who do evil due to the pressure of those whom they love. All these evil deeds comprise kammas stemming from upādāna and leading to the lower worlds. So Visuddhimagga says: "Under the influence of sensual upādāna, people do evil in deeds, words and thought because of their craving for sensual objects in the present life and their desire to preserve the objects in their possession. Such evil deeds usually lead to the lower worlds."


            Some good deeds are right but some are wrong. The so-called good deeds that some people do are harmful and as such they are evil kammas. For example, some people believe that it is a good deed to put an end to the suffering of some animals by cutting short their span of live. Every living being is afraid to die or suffer pain and it is certainly wrong to cause pain and death to animals.

            Some people also consider it a good deed to bring about the speedy death of a person who is suffering from an incurable, painful disease. But the patient does not want to die although he wants to be free from pain. Even if he expresses the desire to die, it is wrong from the Buddhist point of view to cause the death of a living being and if one directly or indirectly causes the premature death of a parent by "mercy killing," it is a grave kammic offence that leads to hell.

            Craving for the sensual pleasures of the human and deva-worlds, and misled by false teachings etc., some people do misdeeds such as killing for the attainment of their object. But as a result of their evil kamma, they land in the lower worlds after death.

            According to the commentary, misconceptions of those people arise from false teachers, lack of good kamma in the past and the failure to guard oneself. Reliance or evil teachers leads to evil kamma, much evil kamma in the previous life makes it easy to acquire evil views and evil habits and lack of self-vigilance makes one an easy prey to temptation.

            True religion is called saddhamma "the religion of the good man." Those who follow the true religion hear good teachings, avoid evil deeds, evil words and evil thoughts, hold right views about the future life, kamma and its fruits, etc, cultivate good thoughts and practise dāna, sīla and bhāvanā for their welfare.

            The practice of alms-giving, morality and mental development is true and good dhamma because it is harmless and acceptable to every body. Nobody will blame a man who avoids killing, stealing, abusing and other misdeeds. The good deeds which we do for our welfare here and now or hereafter are wholesome kamma that stem from upādānā in the sensual sphere. These kammas lead to rebirth in the human or deva worlds. So the Visuddhimagga says: "Those who hear the true teaching believe in kamma and the efficacy of good deeds as passport to better life in the sensual worlds of rich men, aristocrats or divine beings. So they do good deeds under the influence of kāmupādāna and are reborn in the human and deva worlds".


            As it is said, "Bhava paccaya jāti," rebirth occurs in the human and deva worlds or in the lower worlds because of good or evil kamma-process. So rebirth stems from kammas which result from clinging (upādāna) and craving that is rooted in the contact between the six sense-objects and the corresponding sense-organs (āyatana).

            In other words, there arise viññāṇa, nāmarūpa, salhāyatana, phassa and vedanā in the present life as the avijjā saṅkhāra, etc in a previous existence and now on top of that, taṇhā and upādāna give rise to new rebirth. The situation is like that of a man who has committed a crime while he is in prison for a previous conviction, or that of a man who has incurred new debt before he has fully settled his old debt.

            Such new kammas accumulate by the thousands in a single lifetime. Under certain conditions one of these kammas becomes a death-bed vision and leads to rebirth while other kammas will create rebirth at other times in the life-cycle. If there are residual kammas from the previous lives that possess great force, they take precedence over present kamma, appear as death-bed visions and create rebirth in the lower or higher worlds. The post-mortem destiny of the person in such cases is determined by the nature of kamma.


            Kamma is of four kinds, according to the way in which it bears fruit. (1) garu kamma-weighty kamma, (2) bahula or āciṇṇaka kamma-habitual kamma, (3) āsaṇṇa kamma-death proximate kamma and (4) katattā kamma-stored-up kamma.

            Garukamma is killing parents or an Arahat or causing injury to a Buddha or causing a schism in the Saṅgha. As for the good garukammas, there are the good kammas of the material and non-material worlds. The garukammas head off the fruition of other kammas and leads to rebirth, rūpa and arūpa jhānas among them leading to rūpa and arūpa rebirth.

            The evil garukammas lead direct to hell after death; hence the term pañcānantriyakammas-the five great evil-kammas leading invariably to hell. The man who kills his father or mother unknowingly or knowingly can never attain jhāna or the path and fruition (magga-phala) in the present life; he is bound to land in hell after his death. He cannot attain jhāna or the path nor can any good kamma save him from hell. This is evident in the story of Ajātasattu.


            Ajātasattu was the son of Bimbisāra, the king of Magadha state, a devoted follower of the Buddha. Prior to the birth of the prince, the queen had the desire to drink the blood from the right arm of the king. When the king learnt this, he had the blood taken out and fulfilled her desire. The soothsayers then predicted that the child in the queen's womb would become the king's enemy. Hence the name Ajātasattu-the potential enemy of the father while still in the mother's womb.

            The queen tried to abort the child but as the king's kamma and the child's kamma would have it otherwise, she did not succeed in her attempt. The king had her pregnancy well protected and the child was born. When he came of age, he was appointed heir-apparent.

            Then the young prince fell into the clutches of the evil-minded Devadatta who misused his psychic power for his selfish ends. Turning himself into a boy with a snake coiled around his waist, he appeared before Ajātasattu and then showed himself as a bhikkhu. The prince was deeply impressed and no wonder for people are very much interested in miracles and they have blind faith in anyone who can perform them. The prince held Devadatta in high esteem and became his devoted follower.

            Then Devadatta made another move for the success of his evil design. He told the prince that since people did not live long, he (the prince) should kill his father and become king while still in the prime of his life; and that he (Devadatta) on his part would kill the Buddha. The prince failed in his attempt on the life of the king but when the latter learnt of his desire, he handed over his kingship to his son.

            The transfer of power nonetheless came short of Devadatta's scheme. On his advice, Ajātasattu imprisoned his father and starved him. The queen was the only person who was permitted to visit the prison and see the king. She secretly brought food for the king by various means and at last she was forbidden to visit the prison. From that day the king got nothing to eat but still he managed to keep himself in good physical condition by pacing on the floor. Then by the king's order, the barbers caused such injury to the feet of his father as to make it impossible for him to walk. According to the commentary, he was thus injured because in a previous life he walked with footwear on the platform of a pagoda and trod with unwashed feet on a mat meant for the bhikkhus.

            King Bimbisāra died probably at the age of 67. His son Ajātasattu was not evil-minded at heart. His good nature was evident in his devotion to the Buddha after he had wronged his father, his adoration and enshrinement of the Buddha relics and whole-hearted support which he gave to the First Council. It was his association with the evil teacher that led him astray to the point of parricide. His life affords us a lesson that we should specially bear in mind.

            On the very day of his father's death his wife gave birth to a son. On hearing the news, he became excited and overwhelmed with great affection for his child. This reminded him of his father and he ordered the release of the imprisoned king. But it was too late. When later on he learnt from his mother how much he was loved and cared for by his father in his childhood, he was seized with remorse. His life became wretched and miserable. He could not sleep at night, haunted by the visions of hell and smitten by conscience for his crime against his father and devout lay disciple of the Buddha at that.

            So led by the physician Jīvaka, he went to see the Buddha. At that time the Lord was surrounded by over a thousand bhikkhus. But as they were in a contemplative mood, all was quiet with none speaking or making any movement of their hands or feet. Being deeply impressed, the king said, "May my son Udaya-baddha be blessed with the kind of serenity which these bhikkhus possess!" Perhaps he feared lest his son should come to know how he seized power and try to follow in his father's footsteps But later his fear did become a reality for down to his great grandson, the sons ascended the throne after killing their fathers.

            King Ajātasattu asked the Buddha about the immediate benefits of the life in the holy order. The Lord enlarged on the benefits accruing from the holy life the lay follower's reverence for the bhikkhu, moral purity, the first jhāna and other higher states of consciousness in the mundane sphere, psychic powers, extinction of defilements and the attainments of the holy path.

            After hearing the sermon, Ajātasattu formally declared himself a disciple of the Buddha. He would have attained the first stage on the path but for his parricide. Nevertheless, from that time he had peace of mind and after his death he was spared the terrors of Avīci hell that would have been in store for him had he not met the Buddha.


            The other three weighty kammas, viz., killing an Arahat, causing injury to the Buddha and wilfully causing a schism in the Saṅgha are also bound to drag the offender to hell.

            The other type of kamma that bears fruit is habitual kamma, called bahula or acinna kamma. Failure to lead a good moral life may be become habitual if no step is taken to remove it, and it will have evil kammic effect in a future life. So laymen should live up to the five precepts and in case of any breach verbally affirm the will to guard one's moral life more vigilantly. Moral purity is equally vital to the life of a bhikkhu. Failure to make amends for any deliberate or unitentional violation of a vinaya rule will create habitual kamma and so the bhikkhu should seek to regain moral purity through confession and reaffirmation of his will to preserve it.

            Alms-giving, reverence for parents and teachers, contemplation of the Buddha, pratice of meditation and so forth which one does daily are also habitual kammas that tend to bear immediate fruits.

            In the absence of habitual kamma what we do at the last moment of our life (asanna kamma: death-bed kamma) produces kammic results. In one Abhidhammā book it is described as being more potent than habitual kamma but perhaps this is true only in exceptional cases. As the commentaries say, the habitual kammas probably take precedence and bear fruits.

            Nevertheless, in the light of stories in ancient Buddhist literature we can certainly rely on death-bed kamma. A dying man who had killed people for over 50 years attained the deva world after offering food to Sāriputta and hearing his discourse. This story finds an echo in the experience of a Sinhalese fisherman who landed in the deva world after his encounter with a thera just before his death.

            As productive as the positive death-bed kamma is its negative counterpart. A Sinhalese layman who practised meditation for many years was disappointed as he had never seen even the light. He then concluded that the Buddha's teaching was not the way to liberation and because of this false view he landed in the peta world after his death.

            Failure to encounter the light, etc in the practice of meditation may be due to wrong method, wrong effort or lack of basic potential (paramī). In the time of the Buddha, a monk called Sunakkhatta attained divine-eye but not the divine-ear because he did not have the potential for it and besides there was his bad kamma as a hindrance.

            So the yogī need not be disheartened if his practice does not produce the desired effect. By and large practice along the right path leads to unusual experiences. With tranquillity and purity of mind the material object of contemplation and the contemplating consciousness become clearly distinct as do their causal relation and their ceaseless, rapid arising and dissolution. At that time the yogī sees the light but even if he does not see it clearly he experiences joy, ecstasy, etc for joy, ecstasy, tranquillity, equanimity, etc for joy, ecstasy, tranquillity, equanimity, etc form the links of enlightenment (bojjhanga) that are so vital to the development of vipassanā insight. Reflection on nāmarūpa by itself does not lead to these higher states of consciousness.

            In the absence of habitual or death-bed kamma, there is kattatā kamma which means the kamma that one has done once in a lifetime.


            The role of kamma in the chain of causation is underscored in the teaching saṅkhāra paccayā viññāṇāni- "From saṅkhāra there arises rebirth consciousness." which we have already explained in detail. The dying person is attached to the signs and visions relating to his kamma and so on his death there follow kamma-based rūpas together with rebirth-consciousness conditioned by his death-bed attachment.

            Contact with the sense-objects gives rise to feeling which in turn produces desire. It does not matter whether the feeling is pleasant or unpleasant. Pleasant feeling creates attachment to pleasant objects while unpleasant feeling makes us crave for pleasant objects. When the desire becomes strong and develops into frantic craving (upādāna) it results in activity or effort for its fulfillment. People do good or bad deeds which they hope will help to satisfy their needs and desires. It is this kammabhava rooted in craving that gives rise to rebirth. Rebirth is bound up with suffering regardless of the world in which it takes place.

            There is no need to dwell on the sufferings in the animal and other lower worlds. Among human beings, too, suffering is an inescapable fact of life. A man's suffering begins while he is in the mother's womb. He has to work hard for his living, he is harassed by bullies and tyrants. Even if he escapes from the dukkha inherent in the struggle for survival, he will finally have to face old age, sickness and death. From the time of his conception man is headed towards these inevitable evils of life. He is approaching them at every moment. He may live an apparently care-free, happy life but his nāmarūpas are forever in the process of ageing and dis-integration.

            There is an Indian story which stresses the inevitability of old age, sickness and death. A man being afraid of old age rose into the air with the elixir of life in his mouth and hid in the sky. Another man hid under the sea to escape sickness and still another hid in a cave in Himalayas to avoid death. When their sons searched for them they found that the first man had become old with all the ugly signs of decrepitude, the second man was sick unto death and the third man was dead.

            Everyone is subject to old age, sickness and death. Once a man is reborn, there is nothing that will protect him from these evils of existence. Hence the Buddha's saying in the Dhammapada that there is no place in the sky, on land or in the sea, where one can escape death.


            Death and the other two evils of life are inevitable so long as rebirth takes place within the frame-work of disintegrating nāmarūpa. Rebirth leads also to grief, anxiety, lamentations and anguish.

            We grieve when a member of the family dies. The grief is overwhelming when we lose someone, e.g., a son or a daughter whom we love dearly. Another cause for grief is the loss of material possessions through evilminded officials, robbers, thieves, destructive fires, floods, cyclones, and hated heirs. Grief is also caused by the affliction of disease and decline of health. Some sick persons are so much depressed that their mental states become a hindrance to their recovery. In the case of morally scrupulous monks and laymen, any damage to moral life gives rise to anxiety. Thus the rishi Isisinga suffered terrible anguish when his moral integrity was undermined by the seduction of a goddess. Anxiety and repentence also torment those who realize their mistakes after having rejected the right view in favour of a wrong one under the guidance of a false teacher.

            Besides there are many other misfortunes in life e.g. accidents, viz., victimization by robbers, etc., hardship in earning one's living and, securing the necessities of life and so forth that occasion grief, anguish and lamentation.

            There is no need to dwell on the physical sufferings in hell and the animal and peta-worlds. Because of his consciousness man also suffers anguish whenever he is in contact with unpleasant sence-objects. As he had thus to suffer mentally into the bargain, it is for him something like adding insult to injury. This does not apply to the Arahat or the noble one at the anagāmī stage for being free from irritation (dosa), he remains unperturbed in the face of physical suffering and so does the mindful yogī who is free from ego illusion that tends to add to the sense of self-pity. Hence the importance of the Buddha's teaching that we should be aware of unpleasant feeling when we suffer from it.

            People are unhappy when they think of the frustrations and misfortunes that beset them in the past or at present or that may beset them in future. They feel bitter and upset when they find themselves in distress and burdened with misfortunes.

            All these sufferings are rooted in rebirth. Life is all suffering without the ego and without anything good even if there were such ego to enjoy it.

            According to the doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppāda, the only thing that links one existence with another is the cause-and-effect relationship. From craving, kammic effort, etc., based on ignorance in one existence, there arise five effects, viz., consciousness, body and mind, sense-organs, contact, and feeling. These effects begin with rebirth and end in death with old age, anxiety and other sufferings in between them.

            This teaching of the Buddha will not appeal to common people who harbour illusions of happiness and ego-entity. But impersonality and suffering are the unmistakable facts of existence and life in the deva-world is no exception. Some earth-bound devas have to struggle hard for survival and are more miserable than human beings. They are called vinipāṭīkā devas and they comprise ghosts, devils, etc that belong to lower order of devas. Some devas in heavens are not happy because they do not have good abodes and enough attendants. Even Sakka, the king of devas, admitted to the elderly thera Mahākassapa that he was not very much luminous as his attainment of deva-world was due to the good kamma which he did long before the proclamation of Buddha dhamma and that he had to hide himself when he saw the devas who outshone him as they had done good kamma in the time of the Buddha.

            Thus Sakka was not always happy and so were his female attendants who told Mahākassapa that they were wretched and miserable since they counted for little among the high-ranking queen-goddesses. Some devas become unhappy on the approach of death that is heralded by the withering of their bedecked flowers, the sweating from their armpits and other signs of senility. Some devas die suddenly while indulging in celestial pleasure just like a man whose life is cut off by stroke. Death may be a matter of seconds like the extinction of the flame of a candle. This is borne out by the story of Subrahma deva.


            Subrahma deva was having a good time when his attendants, the goddesses who were singing and plucking flowers on the tree died suddenly and landed in hell. Subrahma deva saw them suffering in hell and at the same time he foresaw that he too would die in a few days and share the fate of his attendants. Being much frightened, he came to the Buddha and asked the Lord to show him the place where he could live without fear. The Lord then says that he sees no way to salvation for every living being other than the practice of bojjhanga dhamma (links of enlightenment such as mindfulness), the dhutanga (ascetic practices) and sammappādhāna (right exertion), that serve to put an end to defilements, the control of senses (indriyasamvarasīla) the control of that helps to keep off the defilements and Nibbāna which means renunciation of everything.

            On hearing this, the deva and his attendants attained the first stage on the holy path. What we should note here is the sudden death of the goddesses. The fate of those who thus die suddenly while engaged in the pursuit of pleasure is indeed terrible for they are likely to land in hell as a result of unwholesome kammic impules. If there is any sign that heralds the approach of death, it creates fear and adds to their suffering.

            Suffering that stems from attachment to pleasure is not confined to the sensual sphere. For it is the lot, too, of the Brahmās in their immaterial or formless (arūpa) worlds. In the Brahmā world there is no pleasure of sex or any other sensual pleasure. The Brahmās only see, hear or think and the objects of their seeing, etc. have no sexual overtones. But as Visuddhimagga says, some people develop a craving for the sensual pleasure of the Brahmā world because they believe either through hearsay or speculation that such pleasures are superior to those of the human and deva-worlds. It is no other than their sensual craving that leads to the attainment of rūpajhāna, arūpa jhāna, samāpatti and finally lands them in the rūpa or arūpa brahmā worlds.

            It is not surprising that some people think or speak of the sensual pleasure in the Brahmā world. Those who are well aware of the true teachings or the Buddha will reject the idea but it probably appeals to ignorant people. The Indian religious books portray Brahma with his wife and some regard even Nibbāna as a heavenly abode with celestial mansions where we can dwell with our families and attendants.


            Kāmaupādāna here means not only the excessive craving for sensual pleasure. It means also the developed forms of craving for the material and immaterial (rūpa and arūpa) worlds. Hence according to Visuddhimagga, the yogī can do away with this inordinate craving only at the last stage of the holy path and it is this craving that lies at the root of every effort to attain rūpa or arūpa jhāna. For ordinary people such jhāna means rūpa or arūpa jhāna. For ordinary people such jhāna means rūpa or arūpa kammic effort based on sensual craving and this leads to rebirth in rūpa or arūpa world of Brahmās. From the time of rebirth there arises the ceaseless ageing (jarā) of nāmarūpa or either of the two phenomena of life. The senility of the Brahmā is not apparent like that of a human being but still it leads to decay and when his course is run, he cannot avoid death.

            Being free from hatred, the life of a Brahmā is not subject to grief, worry, anxiety and so forth; and the lack of physical sensitivity makes him free from physical suffering. He cannot, however, escape birth, old age and death that are inherent in every kind of existence.

            So escape from old age and death presupposes the effort to rule out the possibility of rebirth. In order to avoid rebirth, we must seek to avoid wholesome of unwholesome kamma and negation of kammic existence calls for negation of attachment and craving. For this purpose the mental process must end in feeling and stop short of developing the desire for anything. This denial of desire through the contemplations, anicca, dukkha and anatta of everything arising from the senses is the only way to avoid craving, rebirth and other links in the causal sequence that leads to old age and death. This means the temporary extinction of suffering which the yogī can overcome once and forever when he develops vipassanā insight on the holy path.


            Diṭṭhupādāna means the attachment to the view which rejects future life and kamma. Hence ucchedadiṭṭhi which insists on annihilation after death is a kind of ditthupādāna. A person who holds such a belief will have no need to do good or avoid evil. He will do nothing for other worldly welfare and seek to enjoy life as much as possible by fair means or foul. As he has no moral scruples, most of his acts are unwholesome kammas that create deathbed visions and lead him to the lower worlds. This is evident in the story of Nandaka peta.

            Nandaka was a general in the time of king Pingala who ruled Surattha country that lay north of the present province of Bombay in West India. He clung to false views such as that it was useless to give alms and so forth. After his death he became a peta on a banyan tree but when his daughter offered food to a monk and shared her merit with him, he had an unlimited supply of celestial drinks and food. He then realized the truth of the kammic law and repented of his adherence to false views in his previous life. One day he led king Pingala to his abode and entertained the king and his followers to a celestial feast. The king was much surprised and in response to his inquiry, the peta gave an account of his rebirth in the lower worlds as a kammic result of his false views, immorality and vehement opposition to alms-giving; and the sudden change of his fortune following his sharing of merit acquired by his daughter. He also described the suffering that he would have to undergo after his death, the terrible suffering in hell that he was to share with those who held wrong views and vilified the holy men during their earthly existence.

            The moral of the story is that attachment to wrong views (e.g. that an act has no kammic result, etc) leads to unwholesome acts and rebirth in the lower worlds.

            The commentary also says that clinging to uccheda (annihilation) belief leads to deva or Brahamā worlds if annihilation is supposed to follow demise or those higher planes of existence, but devas and Brahmās apparently do not believe in their annihilation after death. By and large the belief in annihilation makes people prone to misdeeds.

            Kammic deeds may also be motivated by eternity-belief (sassatadiṭṭhi). The belief creates the illusion of personal identity, the illusion which makes a man believe that it is his permanent self that will have to bear the consequences of his good or bad deeds in a future life. So he devotes himself to what he regards as good deeds. Some of his deeds may be bad in fact but in any case his deeds, whether good or bad, that arise from eternity-belief leads to rebirth and suffering.

            Still, another mainspring of kammic deed is superstitious belief. There are many superstitions, as for example, that seeing a man of low class brings about misfortune, that the bee-live or an Iguana in a house is a sure omen of poverty. Under the influence of such beliefs, a person may do evil, such as treating an outcaste cruelly or killing the bees. This is borne out by the Cittasambhūta jātaka.

            In the jātaka the bodhisatta was a man of low candāla class called Citta. Ānandā was then his cousin named Sambhūta. They made their living by dancing with bamboos. One day the daughter of a merchant and the daughter of a high-caste brahmin who were very superstitious went for a picnic with their attendants. At the sight of the two dancers, they considered it an il omen and returned home. Their irate followers then beat the two men for denying them the pleasure of the picnic.

            The two dancers then went to Taxila and disguised as brahmins they devoted themselves to learning. Citta became a student leader by virtue of his intelligence. One day their teacher sent them to a place where they were required to recite the brahmanical parittas. There having got his mouth burnt by drinking hot milk unmindfully, Sambhūta uttered "Khalu, Khalu" in his dialect and Citta was so absent-minded as to say, "niggala, niggala"-spit out, spit out," these slips of the tongue led to their undoing for their high caste brahmin students found out their secret. They were beaten and expelled from school.

            On the advice of their teacher they became rishis (forest ascetics or hermits). After their death they passed on to the animal world, first as two deers and as two eagles in their next existence. Then citta became the son of the chief Brahmin and remembered his three previous lives. He led the life of a hermit and attained jhāna and psychic powers. Sambhūta became a king, he remembered his low caste life and spent his time in the pursuit of sensual pleasure.

            By means of his psychic power, Citta knew his brother's spiritual immaturity and after waiting for 50 years he came to the king's garden. The king recognized the hermit as his brother in a previous life and was prepared to share royal pleasures with him. But being aware of the kammic effects of good and bad deeds, the bodhisatta had pledged himself to a life of self-restraint, renunciation and detachment. He reminded the king of their close associations in their previous lives, to wit, as low-caste candālas, as deers and as birds. His object was to point out the erratic course of kammic life and to urge the king to become an ascetic for further spiritual progress. But it was hard for Sambhūta to give up his worldly pleasures. So the bodhisatta returned to the Himalayas. Then the king became disenchanted with his worldly pleasures and went to the Himalayas where he was welcomed by the hermit. There as a hermit he devoted himself to spiritual exercises and attained jhāna and psychic powers.


            What we wish to emphasize in this story is the evil kammas that arise from superstitions. The role of superstition as the cause of evil deeds is also evident in the story of Koka, the hunter.

            In the time of the Buddha there was a hunter called Koka in a certain village. One day he set out with his dogs to hunt in the forest. On the way he met a monk who was out on his begging round. The hunter considered this encounter an omen that boded no good. As luck would have it, he did not get any animal for food on that day. On his return he again met the monk. Now blind with fury and ill will, he set his dogs on the monk. The monk had to run and climb up a tree. He sat on a branch that was not very high. The hunter poked at the feet of the monk with the sharp end of an arrow. The latter had to lift his feet one after the other and at last his robe got loose and slipped down. It fell upon the hunter and seeing him thus wrapped up in the robe, the dogs mistook him for the monk and attacked him. Thus he was killed by his own dogs. Then realizing that they had killed their master, the dogs ran away.

            The monk got down from the tree and reported the matter to the Buddha. Thereupon the Lord says, "The foolish man wrongs a person who has never wronged another. He wrongs a person who is free from defilements. But his evil deed boomerangs on him just like the particle of dust that returns to us when we throw it against the wind."

            Here the hunter's terrible death, his rebirth in the lower worlds and suffering arise from an evil deed that in turn is rooted in his superstition. Some people get alarmed when an astrologer says that the position of planets bodes no good for them. So they offer flowers and candles to the Buddha image, give dānā to the monks, hear the sermons and practise meditation. Some have the parittas recited by monks to stave off the impending evil that they associate with their unpleasant dreams. Their good deeds lead to good rebirth but like the other rebirths that stem from evil deeds, it too is fraught with suffering.

            Some ignorant people do evil to keep off the misfortunes that might befall them. The jātakas mention the animal sacrifice of some kings that involves the killing of four goats, four horses, four men and so forth as propitiatory offerings to gods. On one occasion this kind of rite was planned by king Kosala in the time of the Buddha.

            The king had taken a fancy to a married woman and so one day he sent her husband on an errand to a distant place. Should he fail to accomplish the task entrusted to him and return to the capital on the same day, he was to be punished. The man carried out the king's order and returned before sunset but the city-gate was closed and so being unable to enter the city, he spent the night at Jetavana monastery.

            Overwhelmed with lust and evil desire, the king could hardly sleep in his palace. He heard the voices of the four men who were suffering in hell for having committed adultery in their previous lives. It was perhaps by virtue of the Buddha's will and psychic power that the king heard these voices from hell. The king was frightened and in the morning he sought the advice of the Brahmin counseller. The Brahmin said that the voices portended imminent misfortune and that in order to stave it off the king should sacrifice elephants, horses, etc., each kind of animals numbering a hundred.

            The king made preparations for the animal sacrifice. How cruel is human nature, that dictates the sacrifice of thousands of lives to save one's own life! Among the potential victims there were human beings and hearing their cries, queen Mallika approached the king and asked him to seek the advice of the Buddha.

            The Buddha assured the king that the voices had nothing to do with him. They were the voices of four young men who having seduced married women in the time of Kassapa Buddha were now suffering in Lohakumbhi hell. They were now repentent and belatedly trying to express their desire to do good after their release from hell. The king was very much frightened and vowed never to lust for another man's wife. He told the Buddha how the previous night had seemed very long because he could not sleep. The man who had fetched what the king wanted said too that he had travelled one yūjana the previous day. There-upon the Buddha uttered the verse: "To one who cannot sleep, the night seems long; to the weary traveller, a yūjana is a long distance. Similarly for the foolish man who does not know the true dhamma, the life-cycle is long."

            After hearing this gāthā, many people attained sotāpāṇna and other stages on the holy path. The king ordered the release of all living beings that were to be sacrificed. But for the Buddha's words, he would have done unwholesome kammas and this story shows how superstitious beliefs lead to evil deeds.


            Good or evil kammas are also born of religious attachments. By and large people believe that theirs is the only true religion, that all other religions are false. So they try to spread their religion, convert other people by force or otherwise persecute the non-believers. All these evils had their origin in religious upādāna or fanaticism.

            Again kammic deeds may stem from attachment to ideology or views on worldly matters. Some people seek to impose their creed on other people by every means in their power, they propagate it in various ways and they discredit or slander or undermine the unity of those who do not agree with them. All these efforts and activities form the kamma-bhava due to upādāna.

            In short, all obsessions with practices, and beliefs other than the ego-belief mean excessive attachment to views that leads to kammic deeds.


            Some people believe that they can attain salvation through certain practices that have nothing to do with the four noble truths. Such a belief is called sīlabbatupādāna. It is sīlabbatupādāna too to worship animals, to adopt the animal way of life, to perform certain rites and ceremonies in the hope of attaining salvation.

            According to Vīsuddhimagga, some people rely on these practices as the way to salvation and do kammic deeds that lead to rebirth in the human world, the deva world and the material (rūpa) and immaterial (arūpa) worlds.

            The Visuddhimagga refers only to kammas leading to the human and other higher worlds. It makes no mention of the kammas leading to the lower worlds. It does not follow, however, that sīlabbatupādāna does not give rise to bad kammas. The commentary does not mention the evil kamma arising from sīlabbatupādāna only because it is too obvious to need allusion. It is said in the Kukkuravaṭīkā and other suttas that a man is reborn as an ox or a dog if he lives to the letter like those animals in deed, word or thought or he is reborn in hell or in animal world if he accepts the false belief but does not practise it fully. Needless to say, the killing of animals as a sacrifice to gods that arises from this upādāna leads to the lower worlds, and so do other misdeeds resulting from the upādāna that is bound up with certain forms of worship, rites and ceremonies.

            In short, every belief in the efficacy of a practice as an antidote to evil is sīlabbatupādāna. According to the commentaries on Visuddhimagga it is sīlabbatupādāna even to rely entirely on conventional morality and mundane jhāna as the way to liberation. The arūpa jhānas attained by Ālāra and Udaka originated in this upādāna and so do the deeds of many people that are based on faith in God. All these leads to rebirth and suffering.


            The last upadana (attavādupādāna) is attachment to ego-belief. It is the strong conviction about the ego-entity, the firm belief that the ego-exists permanently, that it is the agent of every deed, speech and thought.

            Few people are free from this upādāna. The average man believes that it is "I" who sees, hears, moves, etc. This illusion of ego-entity is the mainspring of self-love and concern about the welfare of one's self. The universality and omnipotence of self-love are underscored in Queen Mallikā's reply to king Kosala.

            Mallikā was originally the daughter of a flower vender. One day she met the Buddha on the way and offered her food. After eating the food, the Lord told ānanadā that the girl would become the queen of king Kosala. On that very day king Kosala who was defeated in the battle fled on horseback. Utterly exhausted and forlorn, the king rested in the flower garden where he was tenderly attended on by Mallikā. Being much pleased, the king took her to the palace and made her his chief queen. The Buddha's prophecy came true because of her recent good kamma and her good deed in the past existence.

            But Mallikā was not as good looking as other lesser queens. Moreover, as a woman born of a poor family, she felt ill at ease among the courtiers. So in order to cheer her the king one day asked her whom she loved most. The answer which he expected was "Your Majesty. I love you most." He would then tell her that he too, loved her more than anyone else and this demonstration of his love would, so he thought, increase their intimacy and make her more at home in the palace.

            Nevertheless, as an intelligent woman who had the courage of conviction, Mallikā replied frankly that she there was no one whom she loved more than herself. She asked the king whom he loved most. The king had to admit that he too loved himself more than any one else. He reported this dialogue to the Buddha. Then the Lord said, "There is no one in this world who loves another person more than himself. So everyone should have sympathy and avoid ill-treating another person."

            In this saying of the Buddha the word "self" or Pāḷi: atta does not mean the atta or ātman of the ego-belief. It refers only to self in its conventional sense or the self that a man speaks to distinguish his own person from other living beings. But the ego-belief is also a source of self-love. The more powerfull the belief is, the greater is the love of oneself.

            We do not love anyone more than our own selves. One loves one's wife or husband or child only as a helpmate, an attendant or a support. Marital or parental love is no more real than love of precious jewellery. So if a person says that his love of someone is greater than his love of himself, his words must be taken with a large grain of salt. In case of life-and-death crisis even a mother will not care for her child.

            Once a woman travelling with a caravan across the desert was left behind with her child, as she was asleep when the caravan departed. As the sun rose higher in the sky, the sands became hotter and she had to place her basket and then her clothes under her feet. Still the heat became more unbearable till at last she was forced to put down her child under her body. Hence the saying that even a mother will sacrifice her child for self-preservation.

            Because of this self-love based on ego-belief, man seeks his welfare or the welfare of his family by fair means or foul. He does not hesitate to do evil that serves his interests. But the belief in a permanent self also leads to good kammas. Some people are motivated by the belief and so they practise sīla, dāna, jhāna, etc., for their welfare in afterlife. As a result they land in deva and Brahmā worlds but there they have to face again old age, death, and other evils of existence.

            In short, every effort to seek one's welfare in the present life or hereafter is rooted in ego-belief. Such kammic effort differs from that arising from kāmupādāna only in that its mainspring is obsession with personal identity whereas in the case of the latter the driving-force is craving for sensual pleasure. Nevertheless for those who are strongly attached to ego-belief, egoism is closely bound up with sensual desire.

            As for the Ariyas who are wholly free from ego-belief, they are motivated only by kāmupādāna when they do good. Thus the dāna, sīla and bhāvanā of Anāthapindika, Visākha, Mahānāma and others on the holy path may stem from their desire for better life in the human and deva-worlds or for the attainment of higher stages on the path.


            The anāgami Ariyas do good presumably because of their desire for the bliss in material and immaterial spheres and arahatship. It is of course arahatship that can help remove sensual craving. The desire for arahatship as the motivation for doing good in the case of anāgāmi-yogī is evident in the story of Uggā.

            Uggā was a householder in Vesāli city. The Buddha spoke of the eight wonderful attributes possessed by Uggā. In response to the inquiry by a monk about the lord's reference to his attributes, Uggā said that he knew nothing about it but that he had eight distinctive qualities which were as follows.

1.      When he saw the Buddha for the first time, he concluded decisively that Gotama was the real, all-Enlightened Buddha.

2. He attained anāgami insight into the four noble truths when he heard the Buddha's discourse. He observed the five precepts that included abstinence from sexual intercourse.

3. He had four young wives. He told them about his sexual abstinence and permitted them to return to their parent's homes or to marry the men of their own choice. At the request of his eldest wife, he willingly performed the wedding ceremony before giving her away to the man she loved.

4. He had resolved to spend all his wealth on giving alms to holy men of high moral character.

5. He approached the bhikkhus respectfully.

6. He heard the bhikkhu's sermon respectfully. He preached if the bhikkhu did not give a sermon.

7. The devas came to him and said, "The doctrine of the Buddha is very good," He replied that the Dhamma was a good doctrine whether or not they said so about it. He did not feel conceited for his dialogue with the devas.

8. He found himself free from the first five attachments that led to the lower, sensual worlds.

            One day Uggā, the householder who possessed these eight qualities and had attained the anagami stage on the path offered food and robes which he liked very much to the Buddha. The Lord commented on the nature of alms-giving as follows.

            "One who offers anything that pleases him or that he prizes highly gets something which he adores. One who offers to the Ariyan noble who is of high moral character is doing an act of dāna that it is hard for ordinary people to do and therefore he gets what he wants very much."

            Some years later Uggā died and passed on the Suddhāvāsa brahma-world. Before long he came and paid respect to the Buddha. He said that he had attained. Arahatship that was indeed the object of his aspiration when he offered his much beloved food to the Lord in his previous existence. The Buddha again commented on the nature of kammic benefits of alms-giving _ how the giver got what he prized most if he offered his much-prized object, how he attained a rare object if he offered rare things, how he attained to a much extolled stage if he offered much-extolled objects.

            The moral of this story is that one may even attain Arahatship, the summum bonum of the holy life as the kammic result of giving away one's much prized and precious objects. Ugga's alms giving was motivated by the desire for Arahatship and it is this desire, or kāmupādāna that formed his driving force. Some people may object to making the term kāmupādāna synonymous with the desire for Arahatship, and labels it rather kusalachanda (wholesome desire) but then they will have to explain what kind of upādāna it is that gives rise to good acts of Ariya such as dāna, sīla, etc.


            The practice of vipassanā, too, is to be attributed to kāmupādāna of a person who seeks permanent deliverance from evils of existence. Ordinary people have to contemplate to be free from the four upādānas while the Ariyas have to contemplate to overcome kamupādāna. Thus vipassanā practice stands for the conquest of upādāna. According to Visuddhimagga and another commentary, viz. Sammohavinodani, avijjā is indirectly the cause of good acts in that one has to do good for liberation from avijjā and it is also said that bhāvanā or vipassanā practice is one of the good acts in he sensual world which one has to do for such liberation.

            The question then arises as to whether vipassanā practice can lead to rebirth. The commentaries on Aṅguttara Nikāya and Paṭṭhāna point to such a possibility. According to the commentary on Aṅguttara Nikāya, the first three right views lead to good rebirth, the last two right views, viz., the view that is born of fruition on the path (phala-sammāditthi) and the view that results from vipassanā practice tend to liberate the yogī from life-cycle (samsāra). It says, however, on the authority of a learned thera (Culabhaya) that the yogī is subject to rebirth for seven times before he attains Arahatship. According to Paṭṭhāna, contemplation of appamāna (conditions of existence) leads to rebirth in sensual sphere and the commentary defines appamāṇa-cetanā as maturity (gotrabhū) cetanā. Hence it is reasonable to assume that vipassanā practice can give rise to rebirth before Arahatship is won.

            But vipassanā can ensure freedom from samsāra through insight into anicca, dukkha and anatta of all sense-objects, an insight that keeps off the defilement of craving for them. This non-arising of craving means non-arising of kamma and rebirth. Thus vipassanā insight helps to offset kamma and its samsāric consequences by tadaṅga-pahāna (overcoming by opposite).

            Moreover, through inductive generalization the yogī realizes the anicca, dukkha and anatta of other phenomena that he has contemplated. Thus he keeps off the defilements and their kammic potentials by repression (vikkhambhana pahāna). Then there follows the Ariyan insight on the path that helps to root out the defilements. The emergence of this insight may be likened to the signing of an official letter by the head of a government department. The act of the officer-in-charge is in fact to give the finishing touch to the lot of work done by his subordinates. We cannot ignore the major contribution of vipassanā practice in the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment any more than we can ignore the work of office staff or the cumulative effect of repeated use of a saw, that makes it finally possible for the wood-cutter to exterminate the three once and forever. As the sub-commentary on Visuddhimagga says: "Transcendent insight on the path helps to stamp out, root and branch only the defilements which the yogī has done his utmost to overcome through mundane vipassanā insight."

            Those who do not contemplate labour under the illusion of bliss and ego-entity. The illusion leads to craving, kammic efforts, rebirth and all the sufferings that are inherent in life cycle.


            The doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppāda describes twelve causes and effects viz., (1) ignorance (2) kamma formations, (3) consciousness, (4) mind and body, (5) six senses, (6) sense-contact, (7) feeling, (8) craving, (9) clinging, (10) becoming (bhava), (11) birth (jāti), (12) old age and death.

            According to the doctrine, ignorance and craving are the two main sources of suffering. There are two life cycles, the anterior life cycle and the posterior life cycle. The anterior life-cycle and begins with ignorance as its main source and ends with feeling, while the posterior life cycle beings with craving and ends with death. In the former life cycle ignorance (avijjā) and kamma formations (saṅkhāra) in the past life leads to rebirth while in the latter life cycle craving (tan¬ā) and clinging (upādāna) cause rebirth in future. The two life cycles show how a man's lifetimes are linked with one another through cause and effect.

            Again if the doctrine of dependent origination is to be described on time-scale, avijjā and saṅkhāra are two links in the past life, the links from viññāṇa to kammabhava concern the present life while birth, old age and death are the links that future has in store for us. Thus the doctrine refers to three time dimensions.


            The doctrine describes the past cause only in terms of avijjā and saṅkhāra but in point of fact avijjā is invariably followed by taṇhā and upādāna and saṅkhāra too always lead to kamma-bhava. So Paṭisambhidāmagga comments on the doctrine as follows.

            "Avijjā is ignorance that dominates us while doing a kammic deed. Saṅkhāra means collection and exertion of effort. Taṇhā is the craving for the results of an action in the present life and hereafter. Upādāna is obsession with action and its result. kammabhava is volition. These five factors in the past constitute the cause of present rebirth."

            Thus we have to consider all these five links viz., avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna, saṅkhāra and kammabhava if we are to describe the past cause fully. Of these avijjā, taṇhā and upādāna are labelled kilesavatta (cycle or round of defilements.) Saṅkhāra and kammabhava are called kammavatta (cycle of actions). The commentary makes a distinction between saṅkhāra and kammabhava, describing the prior effort, planning, etc., preparatory to an act as saṅkhāra and the volition at the moment of doing the act as kammabhava. Thus seeking money, buying things, etc., prior to an act of dāna comprise saṅkhāra while the state of consciousness at the time of offering is kammabhava. preliminary activities leading to an act of murder are saṅkhāra while cetanā or volition at the time of killing is kammabhava.


            The other kind of distinction between saṅkhāra and kammabhava is based on impulse-moments. It is said that an act of murder or alms giving involves seven impulse-moments. The first six impulse-moments are called saṅkhāra while the last is termed kammabhava.

            The third way of making the distinction is to describe volition (cetanā) as kammabhava and other mental states associated with volition as saṅkhāra.

            The last method of classification is helpful when we speak of good deeds in rūpa and arūpa spheres. All the three methods apply in the case of good or bad acts in sensual world. But the first method is most illuminating for those who are not well informed.

            Alternatively, Visuddhimagga attributes rebirth to flashbacks, visions and hallucinations that hold a dying person's attention at the last moment of his life. So according to this commentary, kammabhava may be defined as the volition (cetanā) that motivated his good or bad acts in the past and the saṅkhāra as the mental state conditioned by his deathbed experiences.


            Thus owing to the rounds of defilements and kamma comprising the five causes in the past, there arises rebirth-consciousness to gether with-mind-body, six bases impressions and feeling. These five effects are collectively called vipāka vatta (round of effects). Because of their ignorance, common people have the illusion of pleasantness about every sense-object and mind-object. They develop craving, thereby starting again the vicious cycle of causes and effects that represent their rounds of suffering.

            Consciousness, the six sense-bases, etc arise as the kammic result of past kammas. It is a matter of cause-and-effect relationship just like all other phenomena. This leaves no room for ego, God or Prime Mover. The only difference is the moral law governing this relationship, the nature of feeling, whether pleasant or unpleasant, being dependent on the good or bad saṅkhāra in the past. In reality there is no person who has pleasant or unpleasant feeling nor any being who causes him to have such an experience. Life is only the continuum of consciousness, impression, etc as conditioned by five factors, viz., ignorance, craving, etc.


            Those who have a smattering of Paticcasamuppāda or Abhidhammā say that it is impossible to practise meditation without a knowledge of these teachings,. But in fact the yogī who practises under the guidance of a learned teacher need not bother about higher Buddhist philosophy, for he can follow the teacher's instructions if he knows only that life is a mental and physical process characterized by impermanence, suffering and insubstantiality. The adequacy of this simple knowledge to meet the intellectual need of the yogī who is bent on Arahatship is borne out by the Buddha in Culatanhāsankhaya sutta. There the Lord goes on to talk about vipassanā practice. In the sutta the yogī's understanding of nāmarūpa is termed "abhijānāti" which, says the commentary, means full comprehension and refers to nāmarūpa paricchedañāṇa and paccayapariggahañāṇa.

            Through contemplation, the yogī knows all phenomena analytically as anicca, dukkha and anatta (parijānāti). Here the Pāḷi terms refer to sammā-sanañāṇa and other vipassanā insights.

            As regards Paṭiccasamuppāda, a knowledge of the conditionality and cause-effect relationship in life that rules out a being ego or self is sufficient. It is not necessary to know the twelve links or the twenty main points of the doctrine thoroughly. If the practice of vipassanā presupposes such a comprehensive knowledge, it would be unthinkable for a man of low intelligence like, say, thera Culapanna. The thera's memory was so poor that he could not remember a few gāthās that he had learnt for four months. Nevertheless, he attained Arahatship in a few hours when he practised contemplation as instructed by the Buddha.

            Another laywoman, Matikammātā by name attained the third stage (anāgami) on the holy path in advance of some bhikkhus who were her meditation teachers. She did not know much about abhidhamma and Paṭiccasamuppāda. There were many other yogīs like this woman and Culapanna thera. So it is possible for a yogī to attain the holy path if he contemplates even though he may not have thoroughly learnt the higher teachings of the Buddha.

            Not to know the real nature of pleasant or unpleasant feeling is avijjā (ignorance). It is taṇhā to like a sense-object and it is upādāna to have craving for it. To seek the object of one's desire, to do good or evil for one's happiness or welfare in the present life or hereafter means saṅkhāra and kammabhava. These five factors are the present causes and they give rise to rebirth after death. The doctrine of Paticcasamuppada mentions only three causes viz., vedanā, taṇhā and upādāna but in reality these three factors imply two other causes viz, avijjā and saṅkhāra since these two are the mainsprings of taṇhā and kammabhava respectively. So Paṭisambhidāmagga described all these five factors as causes of rebirth in future.


            Every good or evil act means the complete conjunction of these five present causes and occasions for such a conjunction in a single lifetime may number by thousands. Under certain circumstances these causes may lead to rebirth after death or two or three rebirths successively. Every existence is bound up with old age, grief, death, etc. and if we wish to avoid these sufferings, we will have to remove the present causes.

            To this end we should note all physical phenomena, "seeing", "hearing" etc at the moment of their arising. With the development of concentration, we note their instant passing away and become aware of their impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and unreliability. This awareness helps us to overcome ignorance and illusion that fuel craving, attachment and kammic effort: we thus keep the five present causes inoperative and inactive, thereby forestalling rebirth and consequent suffering.

            This method of removing the causes is labelled tadaṅgapahāna-overcoming some defilements through contemplation. By this method the yogī attains tadaṅganibbūti-partial extinction of defilements through contemplation. Later on there arises the insight on the Ariyan path which means the extinction of all saṅkhāra and the realization of Nibbāna (samucchedapahāna). The defilements and kammas are then done away with once and forever. The yogīs who attain sotapatti stage overcome the defilements and kammas that lead to the lower worlds, and those that may cause good rebirth for more than seven life times, the yogīs at the sakadāgāmi stage overcome those that may cause more than two rebirths while the yogīs at the anāgāmi stage remove those that lead to rebirth in sensual worlds, Finally the yogī who attains arāhatta stage eradicates the remaining defilements and kamma. In other words he becomes an Arahat, the Noble one who is worthy of honour because he is wholly free from defilements.


            The arahat has no illusion about the nature of sense-objects. He is aware of their unwholesomeness and this means he realizes the truth of dukkha because he is free from ignorance (avijjā). So he has no craving for anything. Inevitably he has to fill the biological needs of his physical body such as eating, sleeping, etc., but he regards them as conditioned (saṅkhāra) dukkha and finds nothing that is pleasant to him.

            The question arises as to whether he should long for speedy death to end such suffering. But the desire for early death or dissolution of the physical body too is a destructive desire and the Arahat is free from it. So there is an Arahat's saying in the Theragāthā that he has neither the wish to die nor the wish to live.

            The Arahat does not wish to live a long life for life means largely the burden of suffering inherent in khandhā. Although the burden of khahdhā needs constant care and attention, it is not in the least reliable. To many middle-aged or old people, life offers little more than frustration, disappointment and bitterness. Living conditions go from bad to worse, physical health declines and there is nothing but complete disintegration and death that await us. Yet because of ignorance and attachment many people take delight in existence. On the other hand the Arahat is disillusioned and he finds life dreary and monotonous. Hence his distaste for life.

            But the Arahat does not prefer death either. For death wish is an aggressive instinct which he has also conquered. What he wants is to attain Nibbāna, a longing that is somewhat analogous to that of a worker who wishes to get his daily or monthly wage.

            The worker does not like to face hardship and privations for he as to work inevitable just to make his living but he does not want to lose his job either. He wants only money and looks forward to payday. Likewise, the Arahat waits for the moment when he should attain Nibbāna without anything left of his body mind complex. So when they think of their life span, the Arahats wonder how long they will have to bear the burden of nāmarūpa khandha. Because of his disillusionment, the Arahat's life-stream is completely cut off after Nibbāna, hence it is called anupādisesa-nibbāna.


            Those who believe in ego or soul deprecate Nibbāna as eternal death of a living being. In reality it is the total extinction of suffering that results from the non-recurrence of psychophysical phenomena together with their causes viz, kamma and defilements. So the Buddha points out the cessation of upādāna arising from the complete cessation of craving, the process of becoming (bhava) ceasing to arise due to cessation of upādāna and so on. With the non-arising of rebirth, there is the complete cessation of old age, death and other kinds of suffering.

            Here the popular view is that birth, old age and death are evils that afflict living beings. But in point of fact these evils characterize only the psychophysical process and have nothing to do with a living entity. Since there is no ego or soul, it makes no sense to speak of the annihilation of a living being with the cessation of rebirth and suffering.

            So those who regard Nibbāna as annihilation are not free from the illusion of ego-entity. To the intelligent Buddhist, Nibbāna means only cessation of suffering. This is evident in the story of bhikkhu Yamaka in the time of the Buddha.


            Yamaka believed that the Arahat was annihilated after his death. He clung to his view although other bhikkhus pointed out its falsity. Then Sāriputrā summoned him. Questioned by the elder thera, Yamaka admitted that all the five khandhās are impermanent and suffering, that it would be a mistake to regard them as one's possession or self. Sāriputrā told him to see the five khandhās as they really are. He would then become disillusioned, detached and liberated.

            While hearing the sermon, Yamaka attained the sotāpanna stage. He was now free from false beliefs. Sāriputrā then questioned him again. In response to the thera's questions, Yamaka said that he did not identify the Arahat with the physical body, the perception, the feeling, formations (saṅkhāra) or the consciousness. Nor did he believe that the Arahat existed else where without the rūpa, vedanā or any other khandhā. Therefore since the Arahat or a living entity is not to be found in the five khandhās even before death, it makes no sense to speak of the Arahat's annihilation after his parinibbāna.

            Yamaka confessed his mistaken view. He was now free from it and he knew what to say about the destiny of the Arahat. If someone were to ask him, "What happens when the Arahat passes away? he would answer, "the death of the Arahat means the complete cessation of suffering inherent in the impermanent five khandhās."

            This statement about the Arahat was confirmed by Sāriputrā. The thera likened the khandhās to the murderer who poses as a friend and said that identifying the khandhās with atta is like welcoming the murderer, etc.

            Here the thera Yamaka at first believed that the Arahat was annihilated after death, that there was nothing left. This belief presupposes the illusion of ego-entity and so the annihilation-view of Nibbāna is called ucchedaditthi, the view that Nibban means the negation of atta after death. When he realized the truth and attained sotāpanna, Yamaka said that the death of the Arahat means the complete extinction of suffering inherent in the impermanent five khandhās.

            To sum up the way to the cessation of suffering, failure to note seeing, hearing and other psycho-physical phenomena leads to the arising of avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna, kamma and saṅkhāra that in turn cause birth, old age and death in future. Mindfulness of all phenomena forestalls the five present causes viz, avijjā, etc and the five consequences that involve suffering.


            Moreover, it is the extinction of suffering that is underscored in the famous saying of bhikkhunī Vajirā. While she was sitting under a tree near Jetavana monastery, Māra appeared and in order to scare and discomfit her, asked her "Hey, bhikkunī! who created a living being? Where is the creator? How did a living being originate and how would he come to an end?"

            Bhikkhunī Vajira replied, "O, Māra! What do you think is a living being? Is not your belief in a living being an illusion? What you regard as a living being is nothing but a heap of saṅkhāra. No being is to be found in this heap, a living being (sattavā) is merely a term for the collection of five khandhās viz., rūpa, vedanā, etc just as "chariot" is the term for the combination of wheel, axle, etc; there is no being but only the group of five khandhās. That cause suffering-In fact it is only suffering (dukkha) that arises, exists and ends. There is no arising and extinction of anything other than dukkha."

            Therefore a living being is to be understood only in the popular acceptation of the term. It does not exist in the absolute sense; there is only psycho-physical process which comprises ignorance, craving, attachment, kamma and kammic effort as causes and consciousness, body-mind, sense bases, impression and feeling as effects. These effects in turn become causes that give rise to rebirth and suffering.


            Paṭiccasamuppāda refers to four groups of factors involved in the chain of causation viz., the first group of causes in the past, the second group of effects in the present life, the third group of causes in the present and the last group of effects in the future. The groups are labelled saṅgaha or saṅkhepa in Pāḷi. They may also be translated as layers.

            There are three links for the four layers, the link between the past and the present involving saṅkhāra as cause and viññāṇa as effect, the link between the present effect and present cause with vedanā and taṇhā as cause and effect, and the third link between present cause and future with bhava as cause and jāti (birth) as effect.

            Then there are twenty factors (alāra) involved in the psychophysical process viz., five causes in the past, five effects in the present, five causes in the present and five effects in the future.


            Again the doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppāda deals with three cycles or rounds (vattas) viz., the cycles of defilements, kamma and fruits. The first cycle comprises ignorance, desire and attachment (upādāna), the second (kamma cycle) comprises kammic effort and kammic existence (bhava) and the third vipāka cycle involves consciousness, mind-body, sense-bases, impression and feeling.

            The third vipāka cycle again leads to the cycle of defilement, the cycle of defilement again gives rise to kamma cycle and so on, each of the three cycles occurring one after another ceaselessly in a vicious circle. The three cycles for the samsāric round of suffering. Samsāra means continuum of nāma-rūpa (psycho-physical) process occurring in terms of cause-effect, relationship.

            In order to liberate ourselves from the samsāric cycle of suffering, we do good deeds. We become familiar with the Buddha's teaching about the four noble Truths. We practise contemplation at the moment of seeing,, hearing, etc. We realize the ceaseless arising and dissolution of psychophysical phenomena. This vipassanā insight forestalls illusion and frees us from craving and attachment that lead to rebirth and suffering.

            Visuddhimagga describes the contribution of kamma to the cycle of defilement. A certain yogī sees how mind-body complex is born of kammic cycle and vipāka (kammic fruits) cycle. He realizes that there are only kamma and its fruits; As a result of kamma in the past, there arise nāmarūpa in the present kamma; it gives rise to kammic deeds in present life. These kammic deeds lead to rebirth. In this way there is the arising (becoming) of nāmarūpa (being) without cessation.

            Here the arising or becoming of nāmarūpa means the arising of phenomena from the senses e.g. seeing, hearing, etc. These lead to defilement, kamma, and rebirth successively. Thus and the nāmarūpa process is conditioned by the cycle of kamma and its fruit. According to Visuddhimagga, this insight-knowledge means paccaya-pariggahañāna and kaṅkhāvitarana visuddhi (Purity of Escape from all Doubt).


            There are four aspects of the doctrine of Paticca-samuppāda that we should bear in mind. The first is the individual character of the psychophysical process that comprises the three successive existences. Although the doctrine stresses the conditionality of all phenomena, it is a mistake to believe that avijjā, taṇhā and other causes concern one person while viññāṇa, nāmarūpa and other causes concern one person while viññāṇā, nāmarūpa and other effects concern another person. For this belief implies the total extinction of a living being after death, the annihilation-view which Buddhism rejects. In reality, the nāmarūpa process is analogous to, say, the evolution of a mango tree. The mango seed becomes a seedling, the seedling turns into a young plant and the plant grows into a tree. Here the seed, the young plant and the tree form a continuous, unbroken line of cause and effect relationship so that strictly speaking, it is impossible to distinguish between the tree and the plant.

            Likewise avijjā, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa, etc occur in unbroken succession in terms of cause and effect and so it is reasonable to speak of a particular person involved in the process. It was Devadatta, for example, who committed schism and it is Devadatta who is now suffering in hell. The merchant Anāthapindika did good deeds and it was he himself who landed in the deva-world after his death.


            This identification of the doer of kammic deed with the bearer of its fruit makes it possible for us to avoid the annihilation-view. On the other hand, some people believe in the transmigration of a living being as a whole from one life to another. This mistaken view called sassatadiṭṭhi (eternity-belief) was held by bhikkhu Sāti in the time of the Buddha.

            It was the Jātakas that led bhikkhu Sāti to this view. He learnt how the Buddha identified himself with the leading characters in these birth stories. So he reasoned thus: the physical body of the bodhisatta disintegrated after his death and there was nothing of it that passed on to his last existence. It was only the consciousness that survived physical dissolution and that formed the hard core of the bodhisatta's personality in each of his existence. The same may be said of every other living being. Unlike the physical body, consciousness is not subject to disintegration. It passess on from one body to another and exists forever.

            But the Jātakas underscores only the continuity of the cause and effect relationship in terms of the doer of kamma and the bearer of kammic fruit. They do not imply the transfer of viññāṇa or any other attribute intact from one life to another. Everything passess away but because of the causal connection, we have to assume that the hero of a Jātaka story finally became Prince Siddhattha. So after questioning Sāti, the Buddha says that viññāṇa is conditioned, that it cannot arise in the absence of its relevant cause.

            The Buddha cites the simile of a fire which is designated according to its origin. The fire that originates with wood is called wood-fire, that which starts with grass is called grass-fire and so on. Likewise, consciousness is conditioned by something and it is labelled according to that which conditions it. Thus the consciousness that arises from eye and visual form is called visual consciousness (cakkhu-viññāṇa), that which stems from ear and sound is called auditory consciousness (sota-viññāṇa) and so forth. In short, the consciousness is specified according to the sense-object and the sense organ which together give rise to it. When the cause of a fire changes so does its designation. A grass-fire becomes a bush-fire when the fire spreads to the bush. In the same way consciousness changes its label according to the sense-object and the sense organ on which it is dependent. In the case of the same sense-objects and the same sense organ, too, it is the new consciousness that occurs at every moment in the mental process. Thus to realize the truth about mental process is to be free from annihilation-belief whereas a false view of it leads to eternity-belief.


            Another aspect of the doctrine is the distinction between the different phenomena constituting the chain of causation. Thus avijjā is a distinct phenomenon that conditions saṅkhāra; saṅkhāra is another different phenomenon that leads to rebirth and so on. To differentiate these phenomena is to realize their cause-and-effect relationship and this realization makes us free from eternity-belief. It helps us to do away with the illusion of a permanent, unchanging self that survives death and passes on to another existence.

            In fact the eternity-belief or the annihilation belief stems from the fact that people tend to overemphasize either the connection between the mental states in two successive lives or the distinction between them. If we unintelligently identify ourselves with the nāmarūpa in the present life and that in the previous life, we will be inclined to the belief in immortality. On the other hand, if we overstress the dichotomy of the nāmarūpas, we are likely to fall into the trap of annihilation-view. The right attitude is to recognize the unbroken stream of nāmarūpa that flows from one life to another in terms of cause and effect. This point of view gives us the impression of the individual character of nāmarūpa and as such it clarifies the working out of kamma. It does not, however, imply the transfer of old nāmarūpa or ego. It assumes the cessation of old nāmarūpa and the arising of new nāmarūpa in the present life on the basis of past kamma.

            This view is crucial in vipassanā practice. To the yogī who contemplates nāmarūpa at every moment of their asising, these two aspects of the doctrine are apparent. He becomes aware of the stream of cause and effect comprising avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna and so forth. He is aware of the continuity, and the uninterrupted flow of nāmarūpa process and therefore he rejects the annihilation-view completely.

            Furthermore, being aware of the new phenomenon that arises whenever he contemplates, he discriminates between the sense-object and his consciousness. Contemplation brings to light feeling, craving, clinging, effort, consciousness, etc as distinct phases of the mental process. And because he is well aware of the arising of new phenomena, he frees himself from eternity-belief.


            Another aspect of Paṭiccassamuppāda is the absence of effort (avyāpāra). Avijjā causes saṅkhāra without striving and saṅkhāra does not strive to create rebirth. Knowledge of this fact means insight into the non-existence of any agent or being (kāraka-puggala) who hears, sees, etc., and as such it makes us free from ego-belief. But as Visuddhimagga says, it lends itself to misinterpretation and turns one into a moral skeptic who accepts determinism and denies moral freedom.

            The non-volitional nature of conditioned psychophysical phenomena is apparent to the yogī who contemplates their ceaseless arising and dissolution. For he realizes clearly that since nāma-rūpa is conditioned, his mind and body do not always act according to his desire.


            The last aspect of Paṭiccasamuppāda is the one-to-one correspondence between cause and effect (evamdhammatā). Every cause leads only to the relevant effect; it has nothing to do with the irrelevant effect; In other words, every cause is the sufficient and necessary condition for the corresponding effect. This fact leaves no room for belief in chance or moral impotency, (akiriyadiṭṭhi). But as Visuddhimagga says, for those who misunderstand it, it provides the basis for rigid determinism. (Niyatavāda) As for the contemplating yogī, he clearly sees the relevancy of each effect to its cause and so he has no doubt about their one-to-one correspondence and the reality of moral freedom.

            I have dwelt at length on noteworthy facts about Paṭiccasamuppāda. These will be clear to the yogīs who consider them on the basis of their experience. But as the doctrine is profound, they will not be able to grasp some facts that are beyond their intellectual level. It is of course only the omniscient Buddha who knew everything thoroughly. The yogī should make it a point to know fully as far as possible within the scope of his intellect. To this end he should learn from the discourses of bhikkhus, reflect over what he has learnt and enrich his understanding through the practice of mindfulness.

            Of the three methods of study, the third method (bhāvanāmaya) is the most important. For the yogī who gains insight-knowledge by this method attains the holy path and is liberated from the dangers of the lower worlds.


            Now we will conclude the discourse on Paticcasamuppāda with a commentary on Arahan, the chief attribute of the Buddha.

            The formula about the dependent origination consists of twelve links beginning with ignorance and ending in death. It has ignorance and craving as two root-causes and two life cycles. The anterior cycle begins with ignorance and ends in feeling, while the posterior cycle begins with craving and ends in death and old age. Since anxiety, grief and the like do not occur in the Brahmā world, they do not necessarily stem from birth (jāti) and as such are not counted among the links of the dependent origination.

            Furthermore, the anterior life cycle explicitly shows only avijjā and saṅkhāra; but avijjā implies taṇhā-upādāna and saṅkhāra implies kammabhava. So all these five links form the past causes, while viññāṇa, nāmarūpa, āyatana, phassa and vedanā form the present effects. These viññāṇa, etc., are the wholesome or unwholesome kammic fruits that are clearly experienced at the moment of seeing, etc. The posterior life cycle directly concerns taṇhā, upādāna and kāmmabhava but these three causes imply avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna, saṅkhāra and kammabhava represent the five present causes that lead to birth, old age and death in future. These effects are the same as those of viññāṇa, nāmarūpa, etc. Thus like the present effects, the future effects are also five in number.

            So there are altogether four groups of layers of five past causes, five present causes and five effects in the future. The layers represent three causal relations viz., the relation between the past causes and the present effects, the relation between the present effects and present causes and the conditionality of phenomenal existence is evident in these layers or the twenty links of cause and effect which are termed akāra. These links may be grouped in terms of vatta of cycles or rounds of defilements. viz., the cycle of defilements, the cycle of kamma and the cycle of kammic fruits which we have already explained before.

            Those who have done good kammas pass through human, deva or Brahma worlds while those who have done evil are doomed to rebirth in the lower worlds. Living beings confined to life-cycle (samsāra) get the chance to do good only when they have a good teacher. A good teacher is hard to come by and so many people are largely prone to evil deeds and subject to their kammic effects in terms of suffering. It is then said that they are overtaken by Nemesis, that they have to pay for their round of kamma. Once established on the Ariyan path they cannot land in hell but as for the cycle of kammic fruits even the Buddhas and Arahats are not spared kammic retribution.


            If we wish to end the threefold cycle, we will have to remove its cause viz., the cycle of defilements. Defilements originate with seeing, hearing, etc., and so we must practise mindfulness to prevent their arising when we see, hear, etc. The practice of concentration and mindfulness makes the yogī aware of the impermanence and insubstantiality of all phenomena. This means he has no more illusion and is free from the cycle of defilements, kammas and kammic fruits.

            Now to sum up the way to the total conquest of the threefold cycle of defilement, kammas and kammic results with reference to the attributes of the Buddha.


            The Buddha's special designation is Arahan and this word points to the following attributes of the Buddha.

            (1) The Buddha was free from defilements. So were the Arahats but they were not free from the habits that continued to dominate them even after the attainment of their spiritual goal. This is evident in the story of thera Pilindavaccha. Pilinda was an Arahat, beloved of the devas and extolled by the Buddha. Yet he was in the habit of addressing his fellow bhikkhus or laymen rather rudely. Some bhikkhus complained to the Buddha about the thera's rudeness. The Buddha attributed this unpleasant habit to his having spent several life-times in the Brahmin families but said that being an Arahat, the thera was pure and good at heart.

            As for the Buddha, from the time of his attainment of supreme enlightenment, he became free from all the habits or hangovers of defilements that were carried over from past lives. This distinctive mark of the Buddha's Arahatship should be borne in mind when we contemplate the Lord's attributes. The complete extinction of cycles means total liberation from the three cycles of defilements, kamma and kammic fruits.

            (2) The Buddha was called Arahan because of his conquest of defilements. People fear only the external enemy such as robbers, snakes, etc. They do not bother about the internal enemy, that is, defilements that are more terrible. In point of fact, they have to suffer because of their mind-body complex and defilements. The root-cause is the defilements that give rise to repeated rebirths and sufferings. The defilements are ten in number viz., craving, hatred, ignorance, pride, illusion, doubt, lassitude, restlessness, shamelessness and lack of conscience.

            (3) By virtue of his outstanding moral integrity, wisdom and enlightenment, the Buddha was worthy of reverence and offering. People who revered or made offerings to the Buddha have their wishes fulfilled.

            (4) Since he had conquered the defilements completely, the Buddha was pure at heart whether in public or solitude. Many people play the hypocrite, posing as good men or women in public but doing evil when there is no one to see or hear them. In reality, there is no place where one can do evil secretly. Even though the evil-doer is not seen by men and gods, he cannot help having qualms of conscience. His conscience is the most infallible witness to his misdeeds and it forms the basis for death-bed visions that point to unpleasant life that future has in store for him.

            As for the Buddha, having wholly conquered all the defilements, his mind was always pure and he had absolutely no desire or intention to do evil either publicly or secretly.

            (5) The Buddha had destroyed the spokes of the wheel with the sword of the Arahatship. Here the wheel means the cycle of life as described in the doctrine of Paṭiccasamuppāda and the sword means the insight-knowledge of the Arahat. The axle of the wheel represents avijjā, the root-cause; the fringe of the wheel stands for old age and death, while the spokes stand for the middle links, viz, saṅkhāra, etc. Just as the removal of spokes makes it impossible for the wheel to move, so also the destruction of the middle links in the chain of conditioned phenomena means the end of the cycle of life.


            The first thing to do to end the life-cycle is to remove its root-cause viz., ignorance. For ignorance is invariably followed by saṅkhāra, viññāṇa etc., down to jarāmaraṇa (old age and death). This is true in the sensual worlds as well as in the material world of Brahmās.

            Once there was a great Brahmā called Baka. He outlived many world-systems (kappa); indeed he lived so long that at last he forgot his previous existences and became convinced of his immortality without old age or death. The Buddha went to his abode to remove his illusion. The Brahmā welcomed the Lord and bragged about his eternal life. The Buddha said that his ignorance was appalling in that he denied impermanence, old age and death. He revealed the good deeds that had led to the Brahmā's longevity and it was this fabulous longevity that had made him oblivious of his previous lives and created the illusion of his immortality. On hearing this, Baka Brahmā had second thoughts about his omnipotence. Still, he was conceited and in order to show his power, he tried to vanish out of sight of the Buddha and other Brahmās but it was in vain. Because of the power of the Lord, he remained visible.

            Then the Buddha uttered the following verse: bhavevāhaṃ bhayaṃ disvā, bhavañca vibhavesinaṃ. bhavaṃ nābhivadiṃ kiñci, nandiñca na upādiyiṃ. : I do not extol any existence because I see danger in it. I have renounced the craving for existence because I am aware of its evil.

            Baka Brahmā and other Brahmās had lived so long that they considered their existence and their abode eternal. Likewise the evils of life escape the notice of those who have the blessings of a good life such as health, wealth, prestige, success and so forth. But life is subject to suffering on all its three planes: Sensual plane, material plane and immaterial plane. A Brahmā or a rishi on the material or immaterial planes of existence may live for aeons but they too have to die eventually.


            It is insight knowledge that leads to the destruction of ignorance which is the root-cause of suffering. For the Buddha this means the attribute of sammā-sambuddha. Sammāsambuddha is one who knows the four noble truths rightly, thoroughly and independently. Here the twelve links of Paṭiccasamupāda may be differentiated in terms of the four noble truths.

            Thus old age and death together means the first truth of suffering and rebirth means the truth about the cause of suffering. The cessation of this cause and this effect means the truth about the cessation (nirodha) and knowledge of this cessation means the truth about the path to it (magga).

            The same may be said of rebirth and kammic cause, kammic cause and clinging, clinging and craving, craving and feeling, feeling and contact, contact and six senses, the senses and nāmarūpa, nāmarūpa and consciousness, consciousness and saṅkhāra, and saṅkhāra and ignorance. In short, what immediately precedes a link is termed its cause (samudaya) and what immediately follows is called its effect. (dukkha saccā). We can even make ignorance (avijjā), the origin of life-cycle synonymous with truth about suffering (dukkha saccā), if we regard it as an effect of the attachment (āsava) viz., attachments to sensual pleasure, existence, belief and ignorance.

            Here the identification of taṇhā with dukkha may be not acceptable to some people. But it is reasonable if we remember the fact that all nāma-rūpa including taṇhā means dukkha since it is subject to impermanence. The commentary does not describe avijjā as dukkha. But we can say it is dukkha arising from āsava (biases). There are four āsavas that have their sources in sensual craving, attachment to life, false belief and ignorance. It is a matter of ignorance in the past again giving rise to ignorance in the present. Hence the āsavas may be regarded as the cause of avijjā.

            So having realized the four noble truths and attained Nibbāna, through his own enlightenment, the Buddha earned the unique and glorious title of Sammāsambuddha. He knew that all the phenomena covered by the doctrine of Paticcasamuppāda are the real dukkha and the causes of dukkha. He was disenchanted, had no attachment and achieved liberation from all fetters. So according to Visuddhimagga, he was called Arahan because he managed to destroy completely all the supports of the wheel of life.


            The fame of the Buddha pervaded the whole universe. It spread to all parts of the universe through the inhabitants of some realms who came to hear the Buddha's sermons or through the sermons which the Buddha himself gave in some realms or through the former disciples who had landed in some higher realms after hearing the sermons.

            We need not dwell on the first way in which the fame of the Buddha spread. As regards the other two ways, in the course of his long wanderings in samsāra, the bodhisatta had been to all the realms except the five suddhāvāsa realms which are meant only for those who have attained anāgāmi stage. The bodhisatta usually attains all the four stages on the path only in his last existence. So the Buddha had never been to suddhāvāsa realm before and on one occasion he paid a visit to it by means of his psychic powers. On arriving there he received the homage of millions of brahmās, who told him about the former Buddhas and their landing in suddhāvāsa realm as the result of their attainment of anāgāmi stage. Among these brahmās there were also those who had practised the dhamma as disciples of Gotama Buddha.

            The Buddha visited all the five suddhāvāsa realms. It is easy to see how he became famous in the realms that were the abodes of his former disciples. But the question arises as to how his fame spread to the formless (arūpa) realms. It was not possible for the formless brahmās to come to the Buddha or for the Buddha to go to them. Those who practised the Buddhadhamma in the sensual or the material world, attaining the first three stages on the path and dying with arūpa (formless) jhāna might land in the formless worlds if they so desired. These noble ones were aware of the sublime attributes of the Buddha and the possibility of attaining new insights through the practice of mindfulness. So through mindfulness of all mental events they finally became Arahats and passed away in viññāṇañcāyatana realm or ākiñcaññāyatana realm or the highest realm called Nevasaññāṇāsaññāyatana. In this way the fame of the Buddha spread throughout the whole universe.


            We have dealt in detail with Buddha's knowledge of the four noble truths vis-a-vis his attribute of Sammāsambuddha. We will now repeat the four truths briefly. According to the scriptures, all the nāmarūpa in the sensual, material and immaterial worlds exclusive of taṇhā constitute dukkha. This is the first truth. Taṇhā as the cause dukkha is the second truth, Nibbāna as the cessation of dukkha is the third truth and the Ariyan path as the way to cessation is the fourth truth. These four noble truths are realized experientially by the yogī through the practice of vipassanā. From experience he knows that all that is arising and passing away mean dukkha, attachment to them is the cause, that cessation of both the dukkha and its cause is Nibbānā and that its attainment is the path.


            Both of the two Pāḷi terms viz., Buddha and Sammāsambuddha mean omniscience or knowledge of all the dhammas. This raises the question of how to make a distinction between the two attributes connected by the two terms. By the attribute of sammā-sambuddha we are to understand that the bodhisatta attained Buddhahood on the basis of independent reflection, and effort and the realization of the four noble truths through insight on the path of Arahatship. Buddhahood means the thorough and exhaustive knowledge of all the conditioned and the unconditioned dhammas on the basis of the unique attributes possessed by the Buddha such as omniscience (sabbaññutañāṇa), etc.

            These unique attributes of the Buddha consist in knowledge of the four noble truths, four kinds of analytical knowledge and six kinds of knowledge that are not to be found among disciples (asādhāranañāṇa). The six asādhāranañāṇa are (1) knowledge of the different moral and spiritual levels of living beings, (2) knowledge of the desires, inclinations and latent tendencies (anusaya) of living beings, (3) the power to create super-miracles (yamakapatihirañāṇa), (4) infinite compassion for all living beings, (5) omniscience and (6) knowledge without any hindrance or obstruction of anything which the Buddha wants to know and which he brings into the focus of his attention.

            Now a few words about the conditioned (saṅkhāra) and unconditioned (asaṅkhāra) dhammas. The saṅkhāras are the nāmarūpa or the five aggregates of khandhās that arise owing to the harmonious combination of relevant factors. In other words, they are the phenomena conditioned by favourable circumstances. Thus sound is produced when there is friction between two hard objects such as sticks or iron bars. Here sound is saṅkhata. As opposed to saṅkhata is asaṅkhata which has nothing to do with causes. The only ultimate reality (paramattha) in the category of asaṅkhata dhammas is Nibbāna. Of the non-para-mattha asaṅkhatas there are many kinds of names such as names of shapes, figures and so forth.

            The Buddha's sabbaññutañāṇa is so called because it encompasses the whole range of contioned and unconditioned dhammas. It is also described in terms of the five ñeyyadhamma viz., the saṅkhāra, the distinctive qualities of certain rūpas (nipphanna), the conditioned characteristics of nāmarūpa, Nibbāna and names.

            The first two attributes of the Buddha forming the knowledge of the different spiritual levels, inclinations and latent tendencies of living beings are labelled Buddha-eye. (Buddha-cakkhu) With this all-seeing eye, the Buddha chose the living beings who ought to be enlightened, and preached to them the appropriate dhamma at the appropriate moment.

            We conclude the discourse on the Paṭiccasamuppāda with the commentary on the attributes of the Buddha (Arahan) because we wish to inspire the readers with faith in the Blessed One. We hope that they will find the source of inspiration too, in the Arahats who also possess the Arahan attribute. The Arahat is wholly free from defilements, he has destroyed the framework of life-cycle; there is no secret place where he will do evil and so he is worthy of honour. These are the qualities that make up his Arahan attribute although this attribute as possessed by the ordinary Arahat is below the superlative Arahan attribute of the Buddha.

            So you should try to overcome defilements through mindfulness of the nāmarūpa processes that arise at the six sense-doors, destroy the supports of the wheel of life and keep your mind pure all the time in order that you may eventually become Arahats and earn the glorious title of Arahan.


            From the two root-causes referred to in the two noble truths there arise four layers, three cycles, three connections, twelve links, three time-dimensions, twenty phenomena and five nāmarūpa processes. One who watches these present resultant processes effectively does not have craving that is rooted in feeling and so he will put an end to life-cycle completely.

            In other words, the yogī watches every psycho-physical event that occurs at the six senses clearly in terms of its impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and egolessness.

            Through such effective practice of mindfulness. The yogī gains insight into the nature of the sense-object such as sound, visual form, etc., and overcomes the attachment to it by the opposite (tadaṅga); that is, he overcomes it by opposing it with the knowledge that undercuts it. The cessation of attachment rules out the arising of the other phenomena e.g. clinging, process of becoming, rebirth etc. After this cessation through vipassanā insight, the yogī overcomes the latent attachment completely through destruction (samuccheda) when he attains the insight knowledge on the Ariyan path. At this moment the other phenomena e.g. clinging, etc., also become totally extinct.

            There is no teaching which says that with the extinction of feeling, craving too ceases to exist. This is no wonder for even the Arahats do not have any control over their feelings that arise from contact with the six senses.

            There are certain psycho-physical phenomena that have to be watched and noted as they really are i.e., in terms of anicca, dukkha and anatta, if the yogī wants to remove the present causes such as taṇhā etc., the future results and end the cycle of suffering. These phenomena with their Pāḷi terms are explained below.

            (1) viññāṇa; consciousness. Which is of six kinds viz., eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness and mind-consciousness.

            (2) Nāma: mental factors (cetasikās) that arise together with consciousness. Rūpa: the physical phenomena that arise together with that consciousness. Nāma-rūpa may be translated as mind and matter.

            (3) Saḷāyatana: the six bases of mental activity, that is, the six internal bases comprising the consciousness and the five physical sense-organs viz., eye, ear, nose, tongue and body and the six external bases viz., visible object, sound, odour, sap or gustative object, body-impression and mind-object.

            (4) Phassa: contact or impression, which is of six kinds viz., visual impression, impression of hearing, of smelling, of tasting, bodily impression and mental impression.

            (5) Vedanā: feelings whish is of three kinds viz., pleasant feeling, unpleasant feeling and indifferent feeling. We may also distinguish six kinds of feelings: feelings associated with seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, body-impression and mental impression.


1. Two root-causes:                  Ignorance (avijjā) and craving (taṇhā).

2. Two truths:                           Truth about the cause (craving) and truth about suffering (dukkha).

3. Four layers:                          (1) The layer of the past-cause-ignorance, kamma formations (saṅkhāra) craving,
                                                     clinging and becoming.

                                                (2) The layer of present result consciousness, mind-body complex, six bases of
                                                     mental activity, impression, feeling.

                                                (3) The layer of present cause-craving, clinging, kamma, becoming, ignorance,
formations (saṅkhāra).

                                                (4) Future result -birth, old age, death, consciousness, etc.

4. Three cycles:                        (1) The cycle of defilements-ignorance, craving, clinging.

                                                (2) The cycle of kamma-kamma formation (saṅkhāra), kamma and becoming.

                                                (3) The cycle of kammic results-consciousness, mind-body complex, six bases of
                                                    mental activity, impression, feeling, birth, old age and death.

5. Three connections:            

                                                (1) The connection between the past kamma formations (saṅkhāra) as the past
                                                      cause and consciousness as the present result

                                                (2) The connection between feeling as the present result and craving as the present

                                                (3) The connection between feeling as the present cause and birth as the future result.

6. Twelve links:                    (1) ignorance. (2) kamma formations. (3) consciousness (4) mental and physical
                                            phenomena (5) six bases. (6) impression. (7) feeling. (8) craving. (9) clinging. (10)
                                            becoming. (11) Rebirth (12) old age and death.

7. Three time-dimensions:         (a) The infinite past-ignorance and kamma formations.

                                                (b) The infinite present-consciousness, mind-body complex, six bases, impression,
                                                     feeling, craving, clinging, kamma-process.

                                                (c) The infinite future-rebirth, old age and death.

8. Twenty elements:                  (a) Five elements of the causative process in the past existence.

                                                (b) Five elements of the resultant process in the present existence.

                                                (c) Five elements of the causative process in the present existence.

                                                (d) Five elements of the resultant process in the future existence.